|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 288-294
Analysis of micromovements and peri-implant stresses and strains around ultra-short implants – A three-dimensional finite-element method study
Nida Sumra1, Shrikar Desai2, Rohit Kulshrestha3, Khusbhu Mishra4, Raahat Vikram Singh5, Prachi Gaonkar3
1 Consulting Periodontist, BDS MDS, Gulbarga, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Periodontics, HKESN Dental College and Hospital, Gulbarga, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Terna Dental College, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
4 Consulting Periodontist, BDS MDS, Patna, Bihar, India
5 Consulting Orthodontist, BDS MDS, New Delhi, India
|Date of Submission||14-May-2020|
|Date of Decision||05-Oct-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||11-Oct-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||01-Jul-2021|
Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Terna Dental College, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Background: Success of an implant depends on its placement in the bone and how well the stress and strain are distributed to the surrounding structures when occlusal force is applied to it. The size and shape of the implant plays an important role is the formation and distribution of stress and strains in the periodontium. Von Mises stresses and micromovements need to be evaluated while placing implants in D4 bone quality regions for a higher success rate. Aim: To evaluate the peri-implant Von Mises stresses, strains, and micromovements distribution in D4 bone quality around ultra-short implants of 5 mm length with varying diameters of 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm. Materials and Methods: The finite element method was employed to make models replacing maxillary molars in D4 type bone that was missing. Implants that could be classified as ultrashort (5 mm) were used. These implants were of varying diameters of 4, 5, and 6 mm. In each model, the implant was subjected to a force of 100 N and analyzed. The force was applied in an oblique (45 degrees) and vertical direction (90°) to the long axis of the tooth. The models were made such that they simulated cortical and cancellous anisotropic properties of the bone. The models were then analyzed using the program ANSYS workbench version 12.1. Results: When all the three diameters were compared wide diameter, i.e., 6 mm threads had the least values of peri-implant von Mises stresses, strains, and micro-movements around them. When thread shapes were taken into consideration square micro thread created the most favorable stress parameters around them with minimum values of stress, strains, and micromovements. Conclusion: Ultrashort implants combined with a wide diameter and platform switched can be used in atrophic ridges or when there is a need for extensive surgery to prepare the implant site.
Keywords: Micromovements, strain, stress, ultrashort implants
|How to cite this article:|
Sumra N, Desai S, Kulshrestha R, Mishra K, Singh RV, Gaonkar P. Analysis of micromovements and peri-implant stresses and strains around ultra-short implants – A three-dimensional finite-element method study. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2021;25:288-94
|How to cite this URL:|
Sumra N, Desai S, Kulshrestha R, Mishra K, Singh RV, Gaonkar P. Analysis of micromovements and peri-implant stresses and strains around ultra-short implants – A three-dimensional finite-element method study. J Indian Soc Periodontol [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Jul 25];25:288-94. Available from: https://www.jisponline.com/text.asp?2021/25/4/288/319662
| Introduction|| |
Rehabilitation of partially or edentulous patients using dental implants is now considered an effective and predictable alternative for the treatment. The success of the implant restoration is evaluated from the esthetic and mechanical perspectives. Both depend on the degree and integrity of the bond at the implant-bone interface, i.e., osseointegration. The factors crucial for implant osseointegration are surgical technique, implant morphology, host, the surface of the implant, biocompatibility of the material used, and loading conditions. To achieve optimal osseointegration and hence implant success the choice of an implant to be restored in a particular case is extremely important which depends on the type of edentulism, the remaining bone volume, the availability of space for the prosthetic reconstruction, the emergence profile as well as the type of occlusion. However, implant placement can be limited due to the situations of either reduced bone height or presence of anatomical structures, such as the extensive maxillary sinus pneumatization and mandibular canal proximity to tooth sockets.,
A short and wide-diameter implant has been suggested to restore tooth loss in the posterior region, where the dimension of the alveolus is greater than the diameter of a standard implant (3.75 mm). The advantage of short implants over regenerative techniques with conventional implants is a low cost, shorter treatment span, simplicity, and lesser risk of complications. Implants with lengths varying from 5 to 8 mm are currently used, and there are only a few short-term comparative studies reliably evaluating their efficacy. The preliminary results of two randomized controlled clinical trials suggest that implants 7–8 mm long can be a better alternative to augmentation procedure.,
”Short” endosseous root-form dental implants are those that have a “designed intrabony length” (i.e., implant length to establish and maintain stability and osseointegration) 7–8 mm., The implant used was sintered porous-surfaced implant which has a designed intrabony length of 5 mm; therefore, it was given the designation “ultrashort” by the authors. The most obvious indication for an ultrashort dental implant is the severely resorbed posterior mandible where proximity to the mandibular neurovascular bundle may preclude the use of longer implant designs without aggressive, sometimes high-risk, preimplantation site preparations such as autogenous block grafting, guided bone regeneration, or nerve repositioning.,, Thread the shape and design of the implant are the other crucial factors in determining the biomechanical stability of the implants. Maximum initial contact, improved initial stability, a larger surface area, and dissipation of stresses are achieved by the threads present. Evaluation of the thread design is imperative to enhance further clinical success.
For the implant to osseointegrate, adequate bone quantity (height, width, and shape), as well as adequate density, are essential. Bone density is a crucial factor in determining the treatment plan, design of the implant to be used, surgical technique, the time required in healing, and initial progressive bone loading during prosthetic reconstruction. Higher failure rates have been reported for the regions, with poor quality bone, for example, posterior maxilla or type IV bone. Consequently, it has been suggested that to increase the success in cases of poor bone quality, a certain modification must be carried out. These include the changes in implant design and implant surfaces, thereby obtaining superior anchorage and a greater surface area of the load to decrease stress to the softer bone type. D4 (Type 4) bone is the bone which is a thin layer (1 mm) of the cortical bone surrounding a core of low-density trabecular bone. D4 bone has little cortical bone thickness and minimal internal strength. Increased clinical failure rates are observed in poor quality, porous bone as compared with more dense bone.,, To decrease the stresses in D4 bone quality increase in the number of implants or an implant design with the greater surface area can be considered.,,,,,,,,
The pattern of stress distribution from the implant to the surrounding bone is one of the major determinants of the success of the implant. The pattern of transfer of load across the implant-bone interface depends on the numerous factors including the bond at the interface, the type of loading, and the design characteristics of the implant and its surface. For determining how implant mobility, often referred to as micromotion, relative motion, micromovement, etc., or implant loading affects bone response, a closer look at implant deformation, bone deformation as well as stress or strain at the implant-bone interface is required. Von Mises stress is a value that has been used to determine if the given material will yield or fracture under stress of force. If the Von Mises stress of an implant under load is equal or greater than its yield limit then the implant may yield. To date, no studies have been carried out comparing the stresses, strains, and micromovements around platform switched wide diameter ultrashort implants of 5 mm length with diameters of 4, 5, and 6 mm with acme, buttress, square, and triangle (V) threads placed in D4 bone quality. Hence, this study was aimed to evaluate the micro-movement and peri-implant Von Mises stresses and strains around ultrashort implants in D4 bone quality.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The implant designs were to replace a missing maxillary molar area having a uniform length of 5 mm and diameters of 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm. The dimensions of the maxillary first molar were used to determine crown dimensions. Three-dimensional models were fabricated and modeled by determining the exact location of nodes after mathematical calculation [Table 1]. The implant design was such that it had a 5 mm length incorporating acne, square, buttress, and triangle (V) thread with 0.2-mm pitch and 0.1-mm height up to half of the length of the implant and after half of the length, 0.5 mm pitch and 0.4 mm height [Figure 1]. Three different diameter implants were used in the study 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm. A (5°) taper was given to the screw and a thread helix angle of 5° proposed. Abutment height of 5 mm with 10% platform switching. All models were developed to support a first permanent maxillary molar with a porcelain fused to metal crown of-occlusal porcelain thickness 1.5 mm, cervically 0.7 mm, and inner metal thickness 0.7 mm in a 25 mm × 25 mm block of the bone. The dimensions of the bone block are 30 mm height and thickness of 0.5 mm. Cortical and cancellous anisotropic properties were applied to the bone [Table 2]. Every one of the models was analyzed when subjected to a force magnitude of 100 N and with the force of direction applied in the vertical direction (90°) and oblique direction (45°) to the long axis of the tooth under delayed loading conditions [Figure 2]. A master chart was created in the excel sheet, and all the values were calculated using ANSYS 12.1 modeling analyses software. All values were compared with each other in terms of higher and lower values.
|Figure 2: Loading conditions – 100N of force in the vertical and oblique direction to the long axis of the tooth|
Click here to view
| Results|| |
Under vertical and oblique loading, for the 4 mm diameter implant-square thread had the least amount of peri-implant stresses but had the maximum stresses, strains, and micromovements as compared with the others, i.e., 5 and 6 mm diameters [Table 3] and [Figure 3]. Under vertical and oblique loading, for the 5 mm diameter implant, the square thread had the least peri-implant stresses as compared to the other threads [Table 4] and [Figure 4]. Under vertical and oblique loading, for the 6 mm diameter implant, the square thread has the least peri-implant stresses and von Mises stresses around them and they had the least amount of peri-implant stresses, strains, and micromovements as compared to other threads, i.e., 4 and 5 mm diameters [Table 5] and [Figure 5].
|Table 3: Values at vertical and oblique loads of 100N force under delayed loading of 4 mm implants|
Click here to view
|Figure 3: Von Mises stress, strains in microstrains and micromovements of 4 mm diameter implant. MPa – Megapascal|
Click here to view
|Table 4: Values at vertical and oblique loads of 100N force under delayed loading of 5 mm implants|
Click here to view
|Figure 4: Von Mises stress, strains in microstrains and micromovements of 5 mm diameter implant. MPa – Megapascal|
Click here to view
|Table 5: Values at vertical and oblique loads of 100N force under delayed loading of 6 mm implants|
Click here to view
|Figure 5: Von Mises stress, strains in microstrains and micromovements of 6 mm diameter implant. MPa – Megapascal|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
Digital elevation model, photoelasticity, and strain measurements on bone surfaces are the mechanical tools that are used for the biomedical purposes. These techniques have certain limitations such as complexities in modeling and difficulties in modifications after modeling. Finite element method (FEM) has an advantage over other methods because of its ease in application and user-friendly software. Geng et al. in their study concluded that the bonded interface predicted uniform distribution of stresses around the implant through the cortical bone and the displacement load ratio was close to the actual implant specimen. Subsequently, after his pioneering study, FEM is routinely employed in the various facets of dentistry to date and is rapidly becoming a useful tool to study and pre-empt the effects of stresses on implants and surrounding bone.
The current study employs FE M to evaluate the peri-implant Von Mises stresses, strains, and micromovements around ultrashort implants. Apart from the purely mechanical aspect as demonstrated in the current study, various biologic factors also play an important role in the process of osseointegration and subsequent success of any implant. Raghavendra et al. stated that the healing period after the implant placement starts with the adherence of serum proteins followed by attachment and proliferation of mesenchymal cells. Consequently, osteoid is formed which is later mineralized. From this onwards, bone remodeling occurs as an adaptation to the implant's environment. With these processes occurring simultaneously to mechanical loading, the interaction of both mechanical and biologic factors is critical and should be considered. Weinberg stated that in the case of natural teeth, the distribution of force depends on micromovement induced by the periodontal ligament. Patterns of force are distribution is greatly affected by cusp inclinations. There is a huge difference in force distribution in the case of implants and natural teeth. Implant overload can be controlled by making changes in tooth location and cusp inclination.
In our study, 5 mm, length implants which were platform switched having micro threads and a reduced pitch was analyzed for peri-implant stresses, strains, and micromovements. The microthreads offer better distribution of optimal loads, and they counteract marginal bone resorption. A study by Yun et al. concluded that the short-term survival rates of micro thread and platform switched implants were 100%, and marginal bone loss was 0.16 mm. Their study demonstrated the successful survival of micro thread and platform-switched implants with a considerable reduction in marginal bone loss. In an FEM simulation, Chang et al. showed consistently less Von mises stresses around platform-switched implants, similar to our study where ultrashort platform-switched implants had favorable stresses around them. The pitch of the implant in our study was a reduced pitch of 0.2 mm which was increased to 0.5 mm after half the length. Favorable results consistent with our study are shown by Chun et al. who in his FEA study concluded that the maximum effective stresses decrease as the pitch decrease.
In addition to the peri-implant stresses and strains, another common occurrence is the displacement of the implant body to the surrounding bone. Such movement or displacements are called as micromovements. Extensive micromotion may interfere with the implant's osseointegration. For successful implant healing, a threshold of 150 μm should not be crossed. All the models in our study had micromovements well within the upper limit, with minimum micromovement observed for 6 mm square thread 0.022243 μm followed by 0.022452 μm for the acme thread and maximum for 4 mm diameter acme thread 0.044296 μm under vertical loading. Higher micromovements are observed in case of oblique loading for all with a minimum value of 0.026832 μm for the 6 mm diameter square thread. For determining the micromovements, bone quality probably plays an important role in achieving a reduced micromotion and increased stability. Petrie et al. studied the influence of diameter, length in his FEA study and proved that increasing the implant diameter from 3.5 mm to 6 mm resulted in as much as 3.5-fold reduction of crestal strain and increasing the length from 5.75 mm to 23.5 mm resulted in 1.65 fold reduction, clearly demonstrating an increasing effect of the diameter on better stress and strain parameters.
Our study also concluded similar results that implant length 5 mm can be a viable option if the wider diameter is used. Reduction in stresses and strains was seen as the diameter increased from 4 mm to 6 mm. Under vertical loading, the von Mises peri-implant stresses reduced from 364 MPa to 169.057 MPa (acme thread), 468.876 MPa to 93.571 MPa (buttress thread), 324 MPa to 89.72 MPa (square), and 742.181 MPa to MPa (triangle thread). Under oblique loading, the stresses had the maximum value of 847.554 MPa for the 4 mm diameter triangle thread and minimum value of 202.725 MPa for the 6 mm diameter square thread. For the strain values, maximum strains were observed for the 4 mm diameter triangle thread under both vertical and oblique loading with the values of 0.06813 microstrains and 0.116504 microstrains, respectively. Minimum strains were demonstrated by 6 mm square thread under both vertical and oblique loading with the values of 0.013525 microstrains and 0.019036 microstrains, respectively, followed by the acme thread. Anitua et al. concluded that the wide diameter implants dissipate the forces and reduce the stress concentrations and hence better stress and strain parameters with wide and ultrashort implants. With the constant implant length, of 5 mm and increasing diameters from 4 mm to 6 mm, four different thread shapes were also compared in our study. In our study, triangle (V) thread had higher stresses and strains around with the maximum stresses around 4 mm diameter triangle threads with a value of 742.181 MPa under vertical loading and oblique loading a value of 847.554 MPa. Square, acme, and buttress threads had better stress parameters around them. For the 6 mm diameter, the square thread had the least stresses followed by the buttress thread under vertical loading with the values of 89.872 MPa and 93.571 MPa, respectively. Under oblique loading, also square thread had the least value of 202.725 MPa followed by buttress thread-214.805 MPa. These results are consistent with the findings from a FEA study done by Geng et al. where he concluded that broader square shape threads generated significantly fewer stresses. Furthermore, he concluded that their effectiveness was prominent in the cancellous bone similar to our study which has D4 bone quality. Furthermore, Chun et al. showed the superiority of the square thread. Steigenga et al. in their animal study demonstrated a higher bone to implant contact for the square thread. They also displayed the least strains and micromovements when compared to the other three threads. The stresses, strains, and micromovements were consistently higher for all threads and diameters under oblique loading as compared to the values for under vertical loading. This is consistent with the findings by Ding et al. which showed that stresses and strains were notably increased under buccolingual/oblique loading.
The current study is completely mechanical with all the structures in the model assumed to be linear elastic, homogenous, and isotropic. The material properties of all structures modeled were different. All interfaces between the materials were assumed to be bonded. This being a mechanical study, it ignored the biological aspect of muscles and other oral structures. The various forces generated by the mandible and the various attached muscles were not taken into consideration. This resulted in the ignorance of forces produced during dynamic functions such as chewing. However, within the limitations of the current study, this study demonstrated favorable peri-implant stresses strains and micro-movements around the ultrashort implants. On comparing the results to the limitations, it was seen that the results supersede the limitations and thereby provide the clinician a better understanding of the benefits and understanding of the implants of 5 mm length. This study if combined with further clinical trials can give a better insight on the advantages of ultra-short implants since the use of ultra-short implants can be predicted to be indispensable in the future when there is a need to restore extremely atrophied ridges or a situation where there are many anatomical constraints present.
| Conclusion|| |
- For all the 3 diameters compared, 6 mm diameter acme, buttress, square, and triangle threads had the least amount of peri-implant stress, strains, and micromovements under both vertical and oblique loading and 4 mm diameter threads had the maximum peri-implant stresses, strains, and micromovements
- For all the four-thread shapes compared, the square thread had the least amount of stresses, strains, and micromovements and triangle thread the maximum
- Our study concluded that with the constant length of 5 mm, increasing the diameter reduced the peri-implant stresses, strains, and micromovements, necessitating further research as to which thread and diameter can generate the most favorable parameters around the implants of length 5 mm, under immediate loading.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Lindhe, J. Clinical periodontology and implant dentistry. Eds. Niklaus Peter Lang, and Thorkild Karring. Vol. 4. Copenhagen: Blackwell Munksgaard, 2003.
Albrektsson T, Brånemark PI, Hansson HA, Lindström J. Osseointegrated titanium implants. Requirements for ensuring a long-lasting, direct bone-to-implant anchorage in man. Acta Orthop Scand 1981;52:155-70.
Degidi M, Piattelli A, Carinci F. Clinical outcome of narrow diameter implants: a retrospective study of 510 implants. J Periodontol 2008;79:49-54.
Bell RB, Blakey GH, White RP, Hillebrand DG, Molina A. Staged reconstruction of the severely atrophic mandible with autogenous bone graft and endosteal implants. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2002;60:1135-41.
Wallace SS, Froum SJ. Effect of maxillary sinus augmentation on the survival of endosseous dental implants. A systematic review. Ann Periodontol 2003;8:328-43.
Renouard F, Arnoux JP, Sarment DP. Five-mm-diameter implants without a smooth surface collar: Report on 98 consecutive placements. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1999;14:101-7.
Felice P, Cannizzaro G, Checchi V, Marchetti C, Pellegrino G, Censi P, et al
. Vertical bone augmentation versus 7-mm-long implants in posterior atrophic mandibles. Results of a randomised controlled clinical trial of up to 4 months after loading. Eur J Oral Implantol 2009;2:7-20.
Cannizzaro G, Felice P, Leone M, Viola P, Esposito M. Early loading of implants in the atrophic posterior maxilla: Lateral sinus lift with autogenous bone and Bio-Oss versus crestal mini sinus lift and 8-mm hydroxyapatite-coated implants. A randomised controlled clinical trial. Eur J Oral Implantol 2009;2:25-38.
Renouard F, Nisand D. Impact of implant length and diameter on survival rates. Clin Oral Implants Res 2006;17 Suppl 2:35-51.
das Neves FD, Fones D, Bernardes SR, do Prado CJ, Neto AJ. Short implants – An analysis of longitudinal studies. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2006;21:86-93.
Deporter D, Ogiso B, Sohn DS, Ruljancich K, Pharoah M. Ultrashort sintered porous-surfaced dental implants used to replace posterior teeth. J Periodontol 2008;79:1280-6.
Buser D, Dahlin C, Schenk R. Guided Bone Regeneration in Implant Dentistry. Chicago: Quintessence; 1994. p. 189-234.
Ferrigno N, Laureti M, Fanali S. Inferior alveolar nerve transposition in conjunction with implant placement. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2005;20:610-20.
Nocini PF, De Santis D, Fracasso E, Zanette G. Clinical and electrophysiological assessment of inferior alveolar nerve function after lateral nerve transposition. Clin Oral Implants Res 1999;10:120-30.
Brunski JB. Biomechanical considerations in dental implant design. Int J Oral Implantol 1988;5:31-4.
Cappiello M, Luongo R, Di Iorio D, Bugea C, Cocchetto R, Celletti R. Evaluation of peri-implant bone loss around platform-switched implants. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2008;28:347-55.
Vidyasagar L, Apse P. Dental implant design and biological effects on the bone-implant interface. Stomatologija Baltic Dent Maxillofac J 2004;6:51-4.
Misch CE. Contemporary Implant Dentistry. 2nd
ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 1999.
Kahnberg KE. Immediate implant placement in fresh extraction sockets: A clinical report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2009;24:282-8.
Steigenga JT, al-Shammari KF, Nociti FH, Misch CE, Wang HL. Dental implant design and its relationship to long-term implant success. Implant Dent 2003;12:306-17.
Sevimay M, Turhan F, Kiliçarslan MA, Eskitascioglu G. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of the effect of different bone quality on stress distribution in an implant-supported crown. J Prosthet Dent 2005;93:227-34.
Misch CE. Density of bone: Effect on treatment plans, surgical approach, healing, and progressive boen loading. Int J Oral Implantol 1990;6:23-31.
Linkow LI, Rinaldi AW, Weiss WW Jr, Smith GH. Factors influencing long-term implant success. J Prosthet Dent 1990;63:64-73.
Bass SL, Triplett RG. The effects of preoperative resorption and jaw anatomy on implant success. A report of 303 cases. Clin Oral Implants Res 1991;2:193-8.
Sato Y, Wadamoto M, Tsuga K, Teixeira ER. The effectiveness of element downsizing on a three-dimensional finite element model of bone trabeculae in implant biomechanics. J Oral Rehabil 1999;26:288-91.
Ichikawa T, Kanitani H, Wigianto R, Kawamoto N, Matsumoto N. Influence of bone quality on the stress distribution. An in vitro
experiment. Clin Oral Implants Res 1997;8:18-22.
Siegele D, Soltesz U. Numerical investigations of the influence of implant shape on stress distribution in the jaw bone. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1989;4:333-40.
Geng JP, Tan KB, Liu GR. Application of finite element analysis in implant dentistry: A review of the literature. J Prosthet Dent 2001;85:585-98.
Raghavendra S, Wood M, Taylor T. Earls wound healing around endosseous implants: A review of the literature. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2005;20:425-31.
Weinberg AL. The biomechanics of force distribution in implant-supported prostheses. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1993;8:19-31.
Yun HJ, Park JC, Yun JH, Jung UW, Kim CS, Choi SH, et al
. A short-term clinical study of marginal bone level change around micro threaded and platform-switched implants. J Periodontal Implant Sci 2011;41:211-7.
Chang CL, Chen CS, Hsu ML. Biomechanical effect of platform switching in implant dentistry: A three-dimensional finite element analysis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2010;25:295-304.
Chun HJ, Cheong SY, Han JH, Heo SJ, Chung JP, Rhyu IC. Evaluation of design parameters of osseointegrated dental implants using finite element analysis. J Oral Rehabil 2002;29:565-74.
Laney WR. Glossary of oral and maxillofacial implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2017;32:Gi-G200.
Petrie CS, Williams JL. Comparative evaluation of implant designs: Influence of diameter, length, and taper on strains in the alveolar crest. A three-dimensional finite-element analysis. Clin Oral Implants Res 2005;16:486-94.
Anitua E, Tapia R, Luzuriaga F, Orive G. Influence of implant length, diameter, & geometry on the stress distribution: A finite element analysis. Int J Periodontics Restor Dent 2010;30:89-95.
Geng JP, Ma QS, Xu W, Tan KB, Liu GR. Finite element analysis of four thread form configurations in a stopped screw implant. J Oral Rehabil 2004;31:233-9.
Ding X, Liao SH, Zhu XH, Zhang XH, Zhang L. Effect of diameter and length on stress distribution of the alveolar crest around immediate loading implants. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2009;11:279-87.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]