Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 356-361

Prevalence and predictors of early periodontal disease among adolescents

1 Department of Periodontics, Government Dental College, Kotttayam, Kerala, India
2 Department of Orthodontics, Government Dental College, Kotttayam, Kerala, India
3 Department of Periodontics, Government Dental College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
4 Joint Director of Medical Education, Government of Kerala, Kerala, India
5 PMS Dental College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr Radhamoni Madhavan Pillai Baiju
Department of Periodontics, Government Dental College, Gandhi Nagar, Kottayam - 686 008, Kerala
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_512_18

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Background: Periodic estimation of periodontal disease burden is essential for formulating new treatment strategies, for evaluating preventive strategies, and for framing of new policies. The previous national-level survey among adolescents was held 15 years ago. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of periodontal disease among older adolescent students and to analyze its predictors as part of an oral health assessment survey conducted in Kerala. Materials and Methods: A multistage cluster sampling was employed among five districts of Kerala to examine 1065 students in the age group of 15–18 years from government and private schools of selected urban and rural areas. Sociodemographic and oral health behavioral data, modified Community Periodontal Index, Oral Hygiene Index Simplified, and Dental Aesthetic Index were taken. Descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done to identify the predictors of gingival bleeding and periodontal pockets. Results: The prevalence of gingival bleeding, periodontal pockets, and loss of attachment was 42%, 13.4%, and 2.7%, respectively. In the adjusted multivariate model for predictors of gingival bleeding, rural location of residence, studying in government schools, high mother's education and their working status, orthodontic treatment need, oral hygiene frequency, and poor oral hygiene status emerged as significant predictors of gingival bleeding. In the multivariate model for periodontal pockets, bleeding on probing emerged as the strongest predictor with an odds ratio of 12.85 when adjusted to poor oral hygiene. Conclusion: The prevalence of early periodontal disease among adolescents is significant. Sociodemographic factors, poor oral hygiene, and malocclusion are significant predictors for periodontal disease among adolescents.

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