Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 257-262

Prevalence of variations in morphology and attachment of maxillary labial frenum in various skeletal patterns - A cross-sectional study


1 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Royal Dental College, Palakkad, Kerala, India
2 Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Royal Dental College, Palakkad, Kerala, India
3 Department of Periodontology, Royal Dental College, Palakkad, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Elayadath Rajagopalan Rajani
Kodamana house, Kadangode Post, Erumapetty via, Thrissur - 680584, Kerala
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_294_17

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Background: Maxillary labial frenum is a dynamic structure with a diverse morphology. Although an abnormal labial frenum is associated with syndromic and nonsyndromic conditions, it is often been neglected during the routine intraoral examination. The significance of various types of frenum (normal to abnormal), based on the attachment site and morphology in different skeletal patterns, has not been studied yet. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a clinical setting on 150 participants (50 each in Class I, Class II, and Class III skeletal pattern) within the age group of 13–30 years. Frenum was examined by direct visual method and intraoral photographs were taken for all the participants. Results: Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used. No gender-wise differences were found among the various frenum typologies. Mucosal type was the most prevalent in Class I and II and gingival type in Class III. Simple frenum was the common type in all the three groups. However, abnormal frenum categories based on its location and morphology were more in class III and found to be statistically significant. Papillary and papillary penetrating types are significantly associated with skeletal class III pattern and midline diastema (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of papillary and papillary penetrating types of frenum are significantly more in Class III skeletal pattern. A labial frenum that is attached close to the gingival margin could be an etiological factor in midline diastema, mucogingival problems, and affect the growth of the alveolar process. Hence, an early diagnosis of abnormal frenum prevents the emergence of periodontal as well as orthodontic problems.


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