Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
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Year : 2012  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 498-503

Biocompatibility and cytotoxic evaluation of drug‑loaded biodegradable guided tissue regeneration membranes

1 Department of Periodontics, Pushpagiri College of Dental Sciences, Pushpagiri Institute of Medical Sciences, India
2 Department of Periodontics, Mahe Institute of Dental Sciences, Mahe, India
3 Department of Regenerative Medicine, Pushpagiri Research Centre, Pushpagiri Institute of Medical Sciences, India
4 Department of Microbiology, Pushpagiri Research Centre, Pushpagiri Institute of Medical Sciences, India
5 Product Development Cell, National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Rajmohan Gopimohan
Pushpagiri Research Centre, Pushpagiri Institute of Medical Sciences, Tiruvalla, Kerala
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0972-124X.106883

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Background: In periodontology, Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) is based on the concept of providing a space for entry of cells with regenerative potential into the wound environment to initiate the regeneration of structures lost due to periodontal disease. First generation GTR membranes were primarily non-absorbable membranes like expanded polytetrafluorethylene which required a second surgery for its removal. This led researchers to explore absorbable materials like collagen and synthetic biodegradable polymers to fabricate GTR membranes. In the present study, biodegradable Polylactic acid (PLA) is used to fabricate membranes with the potential to be used for GTR therapy. Materials and Methods: Biocompatibility of the PLA membranes were evaluated in a subcutaneous guinea pig model. Antimicrobial effect of the drug-loaded PLA membranes were assessed against a drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacterial isolate. The cytocompatibility of the drug-loaded membranes were evaluated using HeLa cell lines. Results: The PLA membranes were shown to be biocompatible. The drug-loaded PLA membranes showed significant activity against the bacterial isolate. Among the drug-loaded membranes, tetracycline-loaded membrane showed minimal cellular toxicity. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that biodegradable drug-releasing polylactide membranes have the potential to be used for periodontal regeneration. It has the necessary characteristics of a GTR membrane like biocompatibility, space maintaining ability, and tissue integration. Among the various antimicrobial agents loaded in the PLA membranes, tetracycline-loaded membranes exhibited minimal cellular toxicity against HeLa cells; at the same time showing significant activity against a pathogenic bacterium.

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