Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
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A comparative evaluation of the micronutrient profile in the serum of diabetes mellitus Type II patients and healthy individuals with periodontitis

1 Department of Periodontics, A B Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Nitte University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, A B Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Nitte University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Biochemistry, K S Hegde Medical Academy, Nitte University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
4 Department of Biochemistry, Central Research Laboratory, Nitte University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Biju Thomas,
Department of Periodontics, A B Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Deralakatte, Mangalore - 575 018, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_398_18

Background: Micronutrients play an important part in metabolism and maintenance of tissue function the maintenance of the integrity and vitality of the periodontal tissues depends on the availability of adequate nutrients, and it is possible that deficiencies can produce pathological alterations in the periodontal tissues. However, the association between nutritional factors and periodontal health is not fully understood. The essential micronutrients for maintaining health include zinc, copper, selenium, and iron. These micronutrients are required for a variety of biomolecules to maintain the normal structure, function, and proliferation of cells and also immune functions. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus (DM) are considered to have a bidirectional relationship, and periodontitis is recognized as the 6th major complication of DM. The number of studies on the role of micronutrients with regard to periodontal disease is limited. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the role of micronutrients-zinc, copper, selenium, and iron, in the serum of chronic periodontitis patients and chronic periodontitis with DM Type II patients, to see whether they can serve as potential markers for chronic periodontitis and also to assess whether periodontitis can have systemic effects. Materials and Methods: A volume of 5 ml of venous blood was collected from each of the study participants, from the antecubital vein. The blood was then centrifuged and stored at −20°C before being analyzed. Zinc, copper, and selenium were estimated by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry, bathophenanthroline method was used to estimate iron. Statistical Analysis: It was carried out using Student's t-test and analysis of variance. The honestly significant difference Tukey test and Pearson's correlation was also used. Results: The mean serum zinc levels were significantly higher in healthy controls as compared to Periodontitis and Periodontitis with DM type II. The mean serum copper levels were significantly higher in Periodontitis with diabetes as compared to controls and periodontitis. Serum selenium levels were significantly higher in controls as compared to periodontitis with diabetes. The mean serum iron levels were significantly higher in periodontitis with diabetes. The Zinc: Copper (Zn: Cu) ratio was found to be significant for the periodontitis with diabetes group. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study suggests that the serum levels of micronutrients Zn and Se were decreased and levels of Cu and Fe are increased in chronic periodontitis as compared to healthy control. There was a potentiated difference in the values in patients with DM Type II. The results show that the levels of these micronutrients can be used as effective biomarkers for chronic periodontitis and that periodontitis has systemic manifestations.

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    -  Thomas B
    -  Prasad BR
    -  Kumari NS
    -  Radhakrishna V
    -  Ramesh A
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