Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-February 2015
Volume 19 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-111

Online since Monday, February 23, 2015

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EDITORIAL  

2015 - My resolution: A broom in every adult's hand AND a toothbrush in every child's hand! What's yours? p. 1
Ashish Sham Nichani
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.151924  
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PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE Top

Clinical training in periodontology - The post graduate scenario p. 2
Biju Thomas
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.151925  
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SECRETARY’S MESSAGE Top

Soaring high! p. 3
Balaji Manohar
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.151926  
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Evaluation of usage of interdental aids among dentists as a preventive measure p. 4
Mythri Halappa, Gowrapura Chandu
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.151927  
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REVIEWS Top

Computerized implant-dentistry: Advances toward automation p. 5
Minkle Gulati, Vishal Anand, Sanjeev Kumar Salaria, Nikil Jain, Shilpi Gupta
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.145781  
Advancements in the field of implantology such as three-dimensional imaging, implant-planning software, computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology, computer-guided, and navigated implant surgery have led to the computerization of implant-dentistry. This three-dimensional computer-generated implant-planning and surgery has not only enabled accurate preoperative evaluation of the anatomic limitations but has also facilitated preoperative planning of implant positions along with virtual implant placement and subsequently transferring the virtual treatment plans onto the surgical phase via static (guided) or dynamic (navigated) systems aided by CAD/CAM technology. Computerized-implant-dentistry being highly predictable and minimally invasive in nature has also allowed implant placement in patients with medical comorbidities (e.g. radiation therapy, blood dyscrasias), in patients with complex problems following a significant alteration of the bony anatomy as a result of benign or malignant pathology of the jaws or trauma and in patients with other physical and emotional problems. With significant achievements accomplished in the field of computerized implant-dentistry, attempts are now been made toward complete automation of implant-dentistry.
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Sclerostin and occlusion: A brief review p. 11
Pankaj Bansal, Pritma Singh, Afshan Bey, Narinder Dev Gupta
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.145785  
In its pursuit of understanding the wonders of human body, mankind has stumbled upon yet another discovery which not only is a key to chest of unanswered queries but also opens a plethora of new possibilities. Till recently the osteocytes were considered latent cells merely entrapped in the matrix of bone. With the discovery of beta-catenin pathway and sclerostin molecule, these cells are now being recognized to perform a multitude of physiological functions which are important to bone function and turnover. Mechanosensor function of osteocytes via sclerostin molecule offers new possibilities in alveolar bone preservation. Sclerostin and its inhibitors have potential in prosthetic, regenerative and preventive therapy in dentistry. Osteocytic pathway of sclerostin release and mechanism of its interaction with occlusion is discussed in this article.
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH Top

Interleukin-17 and interleukin-18 levels in different stages of inflammatory periodontal disease p. 14
Muthugounder Nalanaswamy Chitrapriya, Suresh Ranga Rao, Vamsi Lavu
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.145798  
Context: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory condition of the tooth supporting structures. There is increasing evidence that the cytokines interleukin-17 (IL-17) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) play a role in progression of chronic periodontitis. Aim: The objective of this study was to compare the levels of the cytokines IL-17 and IL-18 in gingival tissue extracts from individuals with healthy gingiva, chronic gingivitis, and mild chronic periodontitis. Settings and Design: The study was performed in a hospital-based population with an experimental design. Materials and Methods: A total of 69 individuals (n = 23 per group) were recruited for the study. Group 1 included 23 individuals with healthy gingiva and Group 2 included 23 chronic gingivitis patients and Group 3 included 23 patients with mild chronic periodontitis. Gingival tissues were collected during surgical procedures and levels of IL-17 and IL-18 were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical Analysis: Intergroup comparison was done by posthoc Tukey's test. Results: The gingival tissue concentration of IL-17 was found to be highest in Group 2 (415.19 ± 76.84 pg/mg) followed by Group 3 (193.77 ± 37.32 pg/mg) and Group 1 (20.49 ± 6.05 pg/mg). Concentrations of IL-18 were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in Group 2 (1479.42 ± 330.33 pg/mg) when compared with Group 1 (385.18 ± 71.26 pg/mg) and Group 3 (330.24 ± 48.56 pg/mg). Conclusion: There appears to be considerable variation of IL-17 and IL-18 levels in gingival tissue during periodontal health and disease.
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Efficacy versus health risks: An in vitro evaluation of power-driven scalers p. 18
Christian Graetz, Anna Plaumann, Jule Bielfeldt, Anica Tillner, Sonja Salzer, Christof Edmund Dorfer
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.145796  
Background: Power-driven instrumentation of root surfaces during supportive periodontal therapy is an alternative to hand instrumentation. The purpose of this pilot in vitro study was to investigate the efficacy of sub- and supragingival plaque removal with a sonic (AIR: Synea, W and H, Bόrmoos, Austria) and two ultrasonic devices (TIG: Tigon+, W and H, Bόrmoos, Austria; VEC: Vector, Dόrr, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany) as well as the health-risk for dental professionals during treatment. Materials and Methods: The power-driven devices were utilized to remove plaque from model teeth in dummy heads. The percentage of residual artificial plaque after 2 min of supra- or subgingival instrumentation was calculated by means of image-processing techniques at four sites (n = 576) of each tooth. The Health-Risk-Index (HRI: spatter/residual plaque quotient) with the different power-driven devices was assessed during treatment. Results: The smallest amounts of residual plaque were found for the sonic device AIR (8.89% ± 10.92%) and the ultrasonic scaler TIG (8.72% ± 12.02%) (P = 0.707). Significantly more plaque was remained after the use of the ultrasonic scaler VEC (18.76% ± 18.07%) (P < 0.001). Irrespectively of the scaler, efficacy was similar sub- (10.7% ± 11.6%) and supragingivally (13.5% ± 17.2%) (P = 0.901). AIR/TIG demonstrated equal residual amounts of plaque sub- (P = 0.831) as well as supragingivally (P = 0.510). However, AIR/VEC and TIG/VEC were significantly in favor of AIR and TIG (P < 0.001). In contrast, the lowest HRI was found after using VEC (0.0043) and differed considerably for AIR (0.2812) and TIG (0.0287). Conclusion: Sonic devices are as effective as ultrasonic devices in the removal of biofilm but bear a higher risk to the dental professional's health concerning the formation of spatter.
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Modulatory effects by neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser on fibroblast attachment to single rooted tooth surfaces following ultrasonic scaling and root planning: An in vitro study p. 25
Shanta Negi, Malathi Krishnamurthy, Kiran Kumar Ganji, Sunil Pendor
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.145819  
Context: One of the most important goals of periodontal therapy is connective tissue reattachment to previously diseased root surfaces. In the recent years, laser therapy has been considered as an important tool in improving the treatment of periodontal disease. Aims: To evaluate the neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG) lasers effects on root surfaces affected by periodontal disease and compare this treatment with scaling and root planning (SRP) in terms of fibroblast attachment. Materials and Methods: A sample of 30 single-rooted human teeth extracted because of advanced periodontal disease was used in this study. Sixty specimens obtained by longitudinal sectioning were randomly divided in three groups. Group A control (untreated); Group B SRP; Group C laser (Nd: YAG) and ultrasonic scaling. All specimens were incubated with fibroblast suspension and then fixed and observed under scanning electron microscope. Results: With a median of 8, the control group (Group A) exhibited the least number of total fibroblasts among all the three groups. The laser and scaling - treated group (Group C) showed the highest number of fibroblasts (median = 49, mean ± standard deviation [SD] = 48.28 ± 17.18), followed by SRP only (Group B, median = 22, mean ± SD = 22.24 ± 8.67). Conclusions: Nd: YAG laser irradiation at specific energy densities can be used as a useful tool to condition the root surfaces, enhancing fibroblast attachment. Hence aiding in re-establishment of the connective tissue attachment to the root surfaces of previously diseased teeth.
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In vitro evaluation of mechanical properties of platelet-rich fibrin membrane and scanning electron microscopic examination of its surface characteristics p. 32
George Sam, Rosamma Joseph Vadakkekuttical, Nagrale Vijay Amol
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.145821  
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of the platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) membrane and to compare these properties with that of commercially available collagen membranes used for guided tissue regeneration (GTR) procedures. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination of PRF membrane was also performed to determine the cell distribution pattern within the different regions of the membrane. Materials and Methods: Modulus of elasticity and hardness of (i) PRF membrane (ii) bovine collagen membrane and (iii) fish collagen membrane were assessed by performing surface indentation test using T1 950 Triboindenter. The in vitro degradation tests were conducted by placing the (i) PRF membrane (ii) bovine collagen membrane and (iii) fish collagen membrane of equal sizes (10 mm Χ 5 mm) in 5 ml of pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution on a shaker set at 40 rpm for 1-week. The degradation profiles were expressed as the accumulated weight losses of the membrane. SEM evaluation of the PRF membrane was done under both low and high magnification. Results: Young's Modulus of elasticity was found to be 0.35 GPa for PRF membrane, 2.74 GPa for bovine collagen membrane and 1.92 GPa for fish collagen. The hardness was 10.67 MPa for PRF membrane, 110.7 MPa for bovine collagen membrane and 90.5 MPa for fish collagen membrane. PRF membrane degraded by about 36% of initial weight after a 1-week in vitro shaking test. Fish collagen membrane degraded by about 8% of initial weight, bovine collagen membrane degraded by about 3% of initial weight. Dense clusters of platelets formed due to extensive aggregation, and few leukocytes were observed in buffy coat area. Conclusions: The preliminary findings from the assessment of the mechanical properties of PRF membrane showed that it was lacking in several desired properties when compared to commercially available collagen membranes. Lack of rigidity and faster degradation may limit its application in GTR procedures.
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Local delivery of hyaluronan 0.8% as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: A clinical and microbiological study p. 37
Tejaswin Polepalle, Moogala Srinivas, Narasimha Swamy, Sudheer Aluru, Swarna Chakrapani, Bollepalli Appaiah Chowdary
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.145807  
Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical and microbiological effects of the local and sub-gingival application of a hyaluronan gel on scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of moderate generalized chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: In this split mouth study, 72 teeth in 18 patients with generalized chronic periodontitis with moderate severity were chosen for the study. Plaque samples were obtained by paper points at required intervals. Contra-lateral pairs of premolars and canine teeth in the maxilla or the mandible were selected to receive test treatment or serve as controls. Experimental jaw quadrants received sub-gingival administration of 0.2-ml 0.8% hyaluronan gel into selected sites following SRP and 1-week later. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline, 1 st , 4 th , and 12 th week. Colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter were assessed at baseline, after SRP and after 2 weeks of drug insertion Student t-test and repeated measure ANOVA (RMANOVA) were used in this study. RMANOVA was used to find the significance in bleeding on probing (BOP) and plaque index (PI) and t-test for probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). Results: The results revealed that there was a significant reduction in BOP (P < 0.001) PI (P < 0.001), PPD (P < 0.001) and CAL (P < 0.001) were also observed in experimental jaw quadrant following SRP and insertion of 0.8% hyaluronan when compared with the control group. A statistically significant reduction of CFUs was also found (P < 0.001) in the experimental site when compared with the control site. Conclusion: Sub-gingival placement of 0.2-ml of 0.8% hyaluronan along with SRP resulted in a significant improvement in both clinical and microbiological parameters when compared with the control site.
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Evaluation of the use of a 940 nm diode laser as an adjunct in flap surgery for treatment of chronic periodontitis p. 43
Tanya Marguerite Lobo, Dilip Ganpat Pol
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.145808  
Background: Lasers have several potential benefits such as antibacterial effect and stimulation of wound healing. In addition, hemostasis and delaying epithelial migration may facilitate the outcome of flap surgery. There is a minimal research and evidence currently available for the optimum method of use of a diode laser in flap surgery and its benefit and safety. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the adjunctive effect of diode laser irradiation in open flap debridement (OFD), while treating chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients with generalized chronic moderate to severe periodontitis with pocket probing depth (PD) ≥5 mm post - Phase I therapy were selected for a split-mouth study. Flap surgery with adjunctive diode laser irradiation was performed in the test quadrant while routine OFD was done in the control quadrant. Clinical parameters including PD, clinical attachment level, gingival recession, plaque index, gingival index and tooth mobility were recorded at baseline, 3 months and 6 months following treatment. In addition, patients' rating of procedural pain as well as the development of complications postoperatively was assessed. Results: All clinical parameters significantly improved after therapy without any statistically significant difference between the two groups for any of the parameters. The exception was a significantly greater reduction in gingival inflammation in the laser treated group. The laser treatment was acceptable to the patient and did not cause any complications. Conclusion: The diode laser can be safely and effectively used as an adjunct to the treatment of chronic periodontitis with the advantage of decreased gingival inflammation.
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Evaluation of pain on use of electrosurgery and diode lasers in the management of gingival hyperpigmentation: A comparative study p. 49
Shalu Chandna, Suresh Dyamappa Kedige
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.145823  
Background: Gingival depigmentation is a periodontal plastic surgical procedure whereby the gingival hyperpigmentation is removed by various techniques such as electrosurgery, cryosurgery, abrasion with diamond bur and lasers. The aim of this study was to determine the pain levels during the gingival depigmentation procedure using electrosurgery and lasers. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients, both male and female, between the ages of 20 and 40 years were randomly allocated into two groups of 10 patients each: Those undergoing depigmentation with electrosurgery (Group I) and those by diode lasers (Group II). Patients of both groups were asked to define the level of pain and discomfort by using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) intraoperatively, 24 h post-operatively and 1 week post-operatively. Results: Both the groups showed a decrease in the pain levels, which was statistically highly significant 1 week post-operatively when compared 24 h post-operatively. There was a statistically highly significant difference in the pain levels between the electrosurgery and the lasers groups after 24 h (P < 0.001), with the lasers group demonstrating lesser pain and discomfort. Although there was no significant difference between the two groups intraoperatively and 1 week post-operatively on comparison, lesser mean scores were observed for the lasers group. Conclusion: The growing concern for esthetic requires the removal of hyperpigmentated gingival areas to create a confident and pleasant smile, which could be easily attained by using either electrosurgery or lasers. This study concluded that lasers produce lesser pain and discomfort compared with electrosurgery during gingival depigmentation.
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Comparative evaluation of platelet-rich fibrin with demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft in periodontal infrabony defects: A randomized controlled clinical study p. 56
Monali Shah, Jay Patel, Deepak Dave, Sujal Shah
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.145803  
Introduction: Several bone graft materials have been used in the treatment of infrabony defects. Demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) has been histologically proven to be the material of choice for regeneration. However, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has been said to have several properties that aid in healing and regeneration. Hence, this study focuses on the regenerative capacity of PRF when compared with DFDBA. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 sites with intrabony defects were selected and were assigned to the test group (open flap debridement [OFD] and PRF, n = 20) and the control group (OFD + DFDBA, n = 20). At the test sites, two PRF plugs were placed in the intrabony defect after debridement of the site and flap was sutured in place. The parameters measured were probing depth (PD), relative attachment level (RAL), and gingival marginal level (GML). These parameters were measured just before surgery (baseline) and at 6 months postsurgery. The changes in PD, RAL, and GML were analyzed at baseline and postsurgically after 6 months in each group with paired t-test and between the two groups with unpaired t-test. Results: The mean reduction in PD after 6 months in the test PRF group is 3.67 ± 1.48 mm where in control DFDBA group is 3.70 ± 1.78 mm. Gain in RAL in the test PRF group is 2.97 ± 1.42 mm where in control DFDBA group, it is 2.97 ± 1.54 mm. Gingival margin migrated apically in the test PRF group by 0.43 ± 1.31 mm where in control DFDBA group by 0.72 ± 2.3 mm. It was seen that the differences in terms of PD (P = 0.96), RAL (P = 1.00) and GML (P = 0.62) were not significant. Conclusion: Platelet-rich fibrin has shown significant results after 6 months, which is comparable to DFDBA for periodontal regeneration in terms of clinical parameters. Hence, it can be used in the treatment of intrabony defects.
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Clinical and radiographic evaluation of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite with or without platelet-rich fibrin membrane in the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects p. 61
Enas Ahmed Elgendy, Tamer Elamer Abo Shady
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.148639  
Background: Nano-sized ceramics may represent a promising class of bone graft substitutes due to their improved osseointegrative properties. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (NcHA) binds to bone and stimulate bone healing by stimulation of osteoblast activity. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), an intimate assembly of cytokines, glycan chains, and structural glycoproteins enmeshed within a slowly polymerized fibrin network, has the potential to accelerate soft and hard tissue healing. The present study aims to explore the clinical and radiographical outcome of NcHA bone graft with or without PRF, in the treatment of intrabony periodontal defects. Materials and Methods: In a split-mouth study design, 20 patients having two almost identical intrabony defects with clinical probing depth of at least 6 mm were selected for the study. Selected sites were randomly divided into two groups. In Group I, mucoperiosteal flap elevation followed by the placement of NcHA was done. In Group II, mucoperiosteal flap elevation, followed by the placement of NcHA with PRF was done. Clinical and radiographic parameters were recorded at baseline and at 6-month postoperatively. Results: Both treatment groups showed a significant probing pocket depth (PPD) reduction, clinical attachment gain, increase bone density 6-month after surgery compared with baseline. However, there was a significantly greater PPD reduction and clinical attachment gain when PRF was added to NcHA. Conclusion: The NcHA bone graft in combination with PRF demonstrated clinical advantages beyond that achieved by the NcHA alone.
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Comparative clinical evaluation of coronally advanced flap with or without platelet rich fibrin membrane in the treatment of isolated gingival recession p. 66
Murugan Thamaraiselvan, Sugumari Elavarasu, Suthanthiran Thangakumaran, Jayaprakash Sharanabasappa Gadagi, Thangavelu Arthie
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.145790  
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of an autologous platelet rich fibrin (PRF) membrane to a coronally advanced flap (CAF) would improve the clinical outcome in terms of root coverage, in the treatment of isolated gingival recession. Materials and Methods: Systemically healthy 20 subjects each with single Miller's class I or II buccal recession defect were randomly assigned to control (CAF) or test (CAF + PRF) group. Clinical outcome was determined by measuring the following clinical parameters such as recession depth (RD), recession width (RW), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), width of keratinized tissue (WKT), gingival thickness (GTH), plaque index (PI), and gingival index (GI) at baseline, 3 rd , and 6 th month postsurgery. Results: The root coverage was 65.00 ΁ 44.47% in the control group and 74.16 ΁ 28.98% in the test group at 6 th month, with no statistically significant difference between them. Similarly, CAL, PD, and WKT between the groups were not statistically significant. Conversely, there was statistically significant increase in GTH in the test group. Conclusion: CAF is a predictable treatment for isolated Miller's class I and II recession defects. The addition of PRF to CAF provided no added advantage in terms of root coverage except for an increase in GTH.
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Vascularized interpositional periosteal connective tissue flap: A modern approach to augment soft tissue p. 72
Chitra Agarwal, Savita Deora, Dennis Abrahm, Rohini Gaba, Baron Tarun Kumar, Praveen Kudva
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.145793  
Context: Nowadays esthetics plays an important role in dentistry along with function of the prosthesis. Various soft tissue augmentation procedures are available to correct the ridge defects in the anterior region. The newer technique, vascularized interpositional periosteal connective tissue (VIP-CT) flap has been introduced, which has the potential to augment predictable amount of tissue and has many benefits when compared to other techniques. Aim: The study was designed to determine the efficacy of the VIP-CT flap in augmenting the ridge defect. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with Class III (Seibert's) ridge defects were treated with VIP-CT flap technique before fabricating fixed partial denture. Height and width of the ridge defects were measured before and after the procedure. Subsequent follow-up was done every 3 months for 1-year. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired t-test was performed to detect the significance of the procedure. Results: The surgical site healed uneventfully. The predictable amount of soft tissue augmentation had been achieved with the procedure. The increase in height and width of the ridge was statistically highly significant. Conclusion: The VIP-CT flap technique was effective in augmenting the soft tissue in esthetic area that remained stable over a long period.
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Comparison of oral health status between children with cerebral palsy and normal children in India: A case-control study p. 78
Nidhi Sinha, Bijay Singh, Kumar Gaurav Chhabra, Santosh Patil
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.145800  
Background: The aim of the present research was to describe and compare the oral health of children with cerebral palsy (CP) with the normal children in India. Materials and Methods: Fifty children with CP of the age range 7-17 years and fifty normal children were selected for the study. An oral examination was carried out and decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft/DMFT) index, oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) index, Angles malocclusion were charted along with other significant dental findings. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test and Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA test. Results: The mean dmft/DMFT of the CP group was 4.11 ΁ 2.62, while that of controls was 2.95 ΁ 2.75, which showed higher caries prevalence in the CP group. There was a significant association between the dmft/DMFT (P = 0.03), OHI-S (P = 0.001), and Angles Class 2 malocclusion and CP. Conclusions: Cerebral palsy group had higher caries, poor oral hygiene and Class 2 malocclusion when compared to controls primarily because of their compromised general health condition and also less dental awareness. Effort should be made for better organization of preventive dental care and promoting dental health of this challenged population.
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CASE REPORTS/CASE SERIES WITH DISCUSSIONS Top

Peripheral ossifying fibroma: A clinicopathologic study of 27 cases and review of the literature with emphasis on histomorphologic features p. 83
Giovanni Mergoni, Marco Meleti, Simone Magnolo, Ilaria Giovannacci, Luigi Corcione, Paolo Vescovi
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.145813  
Context: The peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) is a relatively uncommon, reactive gingival overgrowth usually composed of cellular fibroblastic tissue containing one or more mineralized tissues, namely bone, cementum-like material, or dystrophic calcification. The aetiology and pathogenesis of POF are yet not clear, but some authors have hypothesized a reaction originating from the periodontal ligament, as a result of irritating agents such as dental calculus, plaque, orthodontic appliances, and ill-fitting restorations. Aims: The aim of our study was to report the clinicopathologic features of a case series of POF from a single Italian institution. Materials and Methods: A total of 27 cases were collected over an 18-year period. Detailed relevant medical history, clinical and histological information were recorded for each patient. Results: The age range of patients (m = 6; f = 21) was 17.2-80.1 years with a mean of 42.9 ± 18.1 years. Occurrence of the lesion in the mandibular and maxillary arches was similar, and 67.0% occurred in the incisor-cuspid region. The lesions ranged in size from 0.3 to 5.0 cm (mean, 1.3 cm ± 1.1 cm). All the different types of mineralization were present, with higher prevalence of lamellar bone. The lesions were treated by surgical excision and four lesions in three patients recurred after surgery. Conclusions: Surgeons should consider the high recurrence rate of POF and remove the lesion down to the bone involving also the adjacent periosteum and the periodontal ligament. Professional prophylaxis should precede any surgical procedure, and periodical dental hygiene recalls are important in order to remove any possible irritating factor.
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Isolated cleft lip with generalized aggressive periodontitis: A rare entity  Highly accessed article p. 88
Renuka Metgud, Ajay Kumar, Kishore Bhat
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.145825  
Oro-facial clefts are one of the most common birth defects and may be associated with other genetic anomalies. Aggressive periodontitis is a rare condition that progresses rapidly, but affects only a small percentage of the population. Most of the cases of aggressive periodontitis are familial. Even though, literature has documented the association of various genetic disorders with aggressive periodontitis, the aggressive periodontitis in patients with isolated cleft lip (CL) have never been addressed. Here, we report a rare case of isolated CL with generalized aggressive periodontitis. The concomitant presentation of isolated CL with aggressive periodontitis in an individual has clinical significance for multi-disciplinary care.
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Recurrent idiopathic gingival fibromatosis with generalized aggressive periodontitis: A rare case report p. 93
Ashwini Sudhakar Jadhav, Swati Pramodan Marathe
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.145833  
Gingival fibromatosis is an enlargement of the gingival tissue, which may be localized or generalized, characterized by hypertrophy and proliferation of the connective tissue, predominantly Type I collagen, with occasional presence of an increased number of cells, supposedly fibroblasts. Gingival fibromatosis occurs more commonly as a side- effect of systemic drugs, such as phenytoin, cyclosporine, nifedipine, or due to hereditary factors. However, in some cases, it is idiopathic. We report one such case in 30 -year- old - female who presented with a complaint of swelling of gums since 2 months. This case appears to be of special interest because of the recurrent nature of gingival enlargement along with excessive osseous destruction.
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An interdisciplinary management of severely resorbed maxillary anterior ridge complicated by traumatic bite using a ridge splitting technique p. 96
Narender Dev Gupta, Sandhya Maheshwari, Prabhat Kumar Chaudhari, Shraddha Rathi
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.145829  
Injury to the teeth and alveolar ridge of the maxillary anterior region due to trauma can cause severe alveolar ridge deficiency. Ridge augmentation is a valuable periodontal plastic surgical method for the correction of ridge defects for esthetic purpose. Although ridge augmentation can help to restore the ridge volume, the grafting procedures can significantly increase the patient morbidity, treatment time, and the cost. Among the ridge augmentation techniques, the ridge split procedure demonstrates many benefits such as no need for donor site, the rare risk of damage to underlying anatomical structures, less pain, and swelling. This case report presents a vertical split technique for increasing the bone volume. There was a remarkable healing and significant increase in bone volume. We have followed the case for 6 months.
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Periosteal pedicle graft: A novel root coverage approach p. 99
Mishal Piyush Shah, Akash Prahlad Patel, Kinnari Mishal Shah
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.145828  
Gingival recession along with reduced width of attached gingiva and inadequate vestibular depth is a very common finding. Many techniques have been adopted in order to treat such defects and obtain predictable root coverage. Several graft procedures are used to obtain the coverage, but they have not been able to deliver predictable and satisfactory results (except connective tissue graft). Some of them also resulted in the secondary surgical site that was very uncomfortable for the patients. There was an intense need for a technique that provides not only good and predictable root coverage, but also reduces the need for secondary surgical site. Hence, this paper describes a single stage technique for increasing the width of attached gingiva and root coverage by using the periosteal pedicle graft.
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Modified Whale's tail technique for the management of bone-defect in anterior teeth Highly accessed article p. 103
Anu Kuriakose, Majo Ambooken, Jayan Jacob, Priya John
DOI:10.4103/0972-124X.145826  
The purpose of this case report is to describe the efficacy of a modified Whale's tail technique to achieve primary closure and thereby aid in regeneration of an interdental osseous defect between maxillary central incisors complicated by an aberrant frenal attachment. A healthy 32-year-old female patient reported with the complaint of spacing between her upper front teeth. Clinical examination revealed an aberrant frenum extending into the interdental papilla in relation to the central incisors. There was a 6 mm periodontal pocket in relation to the mesiopalatal aspect of maxillary left central incisor. Intraoral periapical radiograph showed vertical bone loss in relation to mesial aspect of maxillary left central incisor. A modified Whale's tail flap was employed to access the area. The defect was filled with an alloplastic graft. Six months postoperative review showed complete elimination of the pocket along with radiographic bone fill of the defect.
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NEWS AND EVENTS Top

Perio Vista - A Report p. 107
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PROFESSIONAL ENRICHMENT PROGRAM p. 109
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REVIEWERS, 2014 Top

Reviewers, 2014 p. 110
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