Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 122-126

Effect of antidepressants on various periodontal parameters: A case–control study


1 Department of Periodontics, Dr. Z.A. Dental College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dr. Z.A. Dental College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Psychiatry, J.N. Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India
4 Department of Community Medicine, J.N. Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Afshan Bey
Department of Periodontics, Dr. Z.A. Dental College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_210_19

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Background: Various medications are used in the treatment of chronic systemic diseases that affect the periodontium. Antidepressants in mentally depressed patients are prescribed for a long term, but their effect on the periodontium has not been studied adequately. A case–control study was conducted to know the effect of two commonly prescribed antidepressants – venlafaxine (serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor [SNRI]) and fluoxetine (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor [SSRI]). These drugs have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties but do not protect the periodontium from insults caused by these medications, which are significantly associated with the presence of destruction of the periodontium. The aim of this study was to clinically evaluate the effect of antidepressants on various periodontal parameters. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 182 depressed patients divided into three study groups: Group I – the control group diagnosed as depressed on the first visit, Group II – depressed patients taking fluoxetine 20 mg/day, and Group III – patients taking venlafaxine 75 mg/day. Patients in Groups II and III were on isolated antidepressant medication at least for a period of 3 or more months. Mental depression in patients was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-based Hamilton Depression Rating Scale with scoring of ≤16. All the depressed patients were assessed for periodontal health on the basis of the clinical periodontal parameters. Results: The commonly prescribed antidepressants such as fluoxetine and venlafaxine do not protect the periodontium from destruction in spite of possessing anti-inflammatory properties; therefore, these drugs may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal health. The comparative periodontal indices on nonusers of antidepressants or control group (Group I), users of SSRI (fluoxetine) (Group II), and users of antidepressants-SNRI (venlafaxine) (Group III) showed increased periodontal parameters, especially debris index (DI), calculus index (CI), gingival index (GI), periodontal pocket depth (PD), and loss in clinical attachment level. There was no significant difference for CI and GI, probing PD, and clinical attachment levels except DI which was significantly different (P ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: The depressed patients receiving fluoxetine or venlafaxine should be regularly evaluated for periodontal health status as these drugs are risk factors for normal periodontal tissues. Further, these medications did not protect the periodontium from periodontal inflammation, although possessing anti-inflammatory properties.


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