Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 20-25

Types of bone destruction and its severity in chronic periodontitis patients with tobacco smoking habit using periapical radiographs and transgingival probing: A cross-sectional study

Department of Periodontology, Rama Dental College Hospital and Research Centre, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr Neelam Das
H. No. 27c, Patel Nagar, P.O. Harjinder Nagar, Kanpur - 208 007, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_212_19

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Background: Tobacco smoking is an independent risk factor for periodontal disease which increases periodontal pocketing, attachment loss, as well as bone loss leading to varied severity and bone destruction in the form of horizontal and vertical patterns. Aim: The aim of the present study is to determine and measure the types and severity of bone destruction in chronic periodontitis (CP) patients with tobacco smoking habit using intraoral periapical (IOPA) radiographs and transgingival probing. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 male participants with CP were included in the study. Group A comprised 30 heavy cigarette smokers and Group B comprised 30 nonsmokers. Clinical parameters such as plaque index (PI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were recorded. Amount and pattern of bone loss were assessed using IOPA and transgingival probing. Results: The mean values of PI, PPD, and CAL were 2.50 ± 0.28 mm, 9.33 ± 1.42 mm, and 10.2 ± 1.62 mm, respectively, for cigarette smokers, which were found to be higher and statistically significant as compared to nonsmokers. Cigarette smokers showed more bone destruction than nonsmokers in respect to maxillary molars 4.42 ± 1.31 mm and incisors 3.90 ± 1.10 mm as compared to nonsmokers. Types of bone destruction were more of vertical patterns (93.3%) in cigarette smokers. Conclusions: Tobacco smoking was associated with severe attachment loss. Tobacco smoking not only affects soft tissues but also hard tissues such as bone. Palatal sides of maxillary molars showed significantly higher bone loss and also had more percentage of vertical patterns of bone loss compared to nonsmokers. IOPA and transgingival probing may be used as noninvasive methods for the determination of types and severity of bone destruction in CP patients with or without tobacco smoking habit.

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