Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 21-24

Interleukin-21 and its association with chronic periodontitis


1 Department of Biochemistry, Shri B. M. Patil Medical College, Vijayapura, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Microbiology, Maratha Mandal's NGH Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Belagavi, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Ms. Rani Vilas Lokhande
Department of Biochemistry, Maratha Mandal's NGH Institute of Dental, Sciences and Research Centre, Belagavi, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_410_18

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Context: Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a pleiotropic cytokine, well documented to contribute to the development of Th17 cells which have been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Periodontal disease is a chronic infection of tooth-supporting tissue. Aim: This study evaluates the saliva and serum levels of IL-21 in patients with chronic periodontitis and periodontally healthy individuals. Settings and Design: The present study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology in association with Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Maratha Mandal's N.G.H Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Belgavi, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Fifty samples of each group were included in the present study. The levels of IL-21 were assessed using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit and the results were expressed as pg/mL. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 software. Data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and interquartile ranges and comparison of controls and cases by Mann–Whitney test. Results: Serum and salivary levels of IL-21 were significantly higher in chronic periodontitis group than in controls (P < 0.001). Clinical periodontal parameters correlated positively with serum IL-21 levels. Conclusions: IL-21 is highly expressed in patients with chronic periodontitis and correlated well with clinical parameters of periodontal destruction. Therefore, IL-21 appears to play a role in tissue destruction and can be used as diagnostic biomarker in chronic periodontitis. Saliva can be considered to be a useful alternative to serum as a diagnostic sample.


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