Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Home | About JISP | Search | Accepted articles | Online Early | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | SubmissionSubscribeLogin 
Users Online: 1323  Home Print this page Email this page Small font size Default font size Increase font sizeWide layoutNarrow layoutFull screen layout


 
   Table of Contents    
CASE REPORT
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 171-173  

Regular oral screening and vigilance: can it be a potential lifesaver?


1 Department of Periodontology, Government College of Dentistry, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
2 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Government College of Dentistry, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India

Date of Submission24-Feb-2018
Date of Acceptance06-Mar-2018
Date of Web Publication23-Apr-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ruchi Gulati
Room 10, Department of Periodontology, Government College of Dentistry, Indore, Madhya Pradesh
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_136_18

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 


Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a malignant neoplasm of myeloid series defined by the presence of immature blast cells (<30%) in peripheral circulation. Oral manifestations are the potential indicators of systemic health and disease. Oral cavity is the frequently and early involved sites in AML. Gingival overgrowth due to leukemia is one such condition encountered by periodontists. Hence, understanding, identifying, and correlating oral manifestations with systemic diseases are the ultimate responsibility of every dental clinician because of its lethal and unpredictable course. In the present case, we are discussing an undiagnosed case of AML who presented to us with oral complaints.

Keywords: Diagnosis, gingival enlargement, leukemia, myeloid, oral manifestation, systemic disease


How to cite this article:
Ratre MS, Gulati R, Khetarpal S, Parihar A. Regular oral screening and vigilance: can it be a potential lifesaver?. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2018;22:171-3

How to cite this URL:
Ratre MS, Gulati R, Khetarpal S, Parihar A. Regular oral screening and vigilance: can it be a potential lifesaver?. J Indian Soc Periodontol [serial online] 2018 [cited 2020 Feb 23];22:171-3. Available from: http://www.jisponline.com/text.asp?2018/22/2/171/230826




   Introduction Top


The health of oral cavity is a remarkable reflection of systemic status.[1] Identification of the signs and symptoms of oral lesions can act as a warning sign of hidden and serious systemic involvement.[1] Gingival overgrowth (GO) is one of the frequently encountered diseases/conditions by the oral health practitioners, especially periodontists.[2] GO can be categorized into inflammatory, drug-induced GO (DIGO), gingival enlargement associated with systemic diseases and conditions, neoplastic, and false enlargement.[3]

Leukemia is a heterogeneous group of hematologic disorders that arise from hematopoietic stem cells, characterized by disordered differentiation and proliferation of neoplastic cells. On the basis of clinical behavior and histogenetic origin, leukemia is classified as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and chronic lymphoid leukemia. AML is neoplasia of the myeloid series of blood cells, manifested by the rapid growth of abnormal cells with destruction and replacement of bone marrow and presence of anaplastic cells in peripheral circulation. AML progresses rapidly and is typically fatal within weeks or months if left untreated.[4]

The relationship between leukemia and a wide variety of oral lesions has been well documented in many studies.[5],[6] Several undiagnosed cases of leukemia may report to the dentist with chief complaints related to oral lesions.

Oral manifestations of leukemia include petechial hemorrhages (56%), oral ulcerations (53%), gingival enlargement (36%), and spontaneous gingival bleeding.[7],[8] General systemic features include fatigue, anemia, lymphadenopathy, recurrent infections, bone and abdominal pain, enlargement of liver and spleen, bleeding, and purpura.[9] Hereby, we attempt to discuss an undetected case of AML who reported to dental hospital with oral complaints.


   Case Report Top


A 51-year-old male patient reported to the Department of Periodontology, Government College of Dentistry, Indore, with the chief complaint of swollen gums and difficulty in eating. History of present illness revealed that growth was present for 3 months, which gradually increased in size. Medical history revealed recurrent fever associated with weight loss, fatigue, and loss of appetite for the past 3 months. He had been advised analgesics and multivitamins for symptomatic relief at his village. Furthermore, he mentioned abdominal pain and dyspnea on exertion.

On physical examination, the patient was found pale, anemic, hyperthermic, and cachexic. Submandibular lymph nodes were palpable and tender. Systemic examination revealed hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Spoon-shaped fingernails were observed.

Intraoral examination revealed generalized gingival enlargement involving the buccal, palatal, and lingual region covering almost one-third of anatomic crowns in anterior and two-third in the posterior teeth [Figure 1]a,[Figure 1]b,[Figure 1]c, [Figure 2]a and [Figure 2]b. The gingiva was enlarged, ulcerated, painful, and hemorrhagic with fresh bleeding spots signifying spontaneous bleeding. The color of the gingiva ranged from reddish to bluish red indicating cyanotic appearance. Large patches of ecchymosis were also observed over hard palate mucosa [Figure 2]a. Moreover, the patient had fetor oris with poor oral hygiene. The patient had maxillary right posterior missing. No gingival enlargement was seen on edentulous area [Figure 2]a.
Figure 1: (a) Labial view; (b) Right lateral view; (c) Left lateral intraoral view showing gingival overgrowth extending one-third of crowns in anteriors and two-third in posteriors, spontaneous bleeding spots at marginal gingiva, gingival ulceration, and cyanotic appearance of gingiva

Click here to view
Figure 2: (a) Maxillary occlusal view; (b) Mandibular occlusal view of gingival growth. No gingival overgrowth seen at edentulous area and ecchymosis seen over hard palate

Click here to view


Radiographic examination revealed no significant osseous changes with slight generalized horizontal bone loss [Figure 3]. Root stumps of 18, 28, and 38 were seen on radiograph. Furthermore, 27 and 38 were proximally carious with periapical radiolucency with respect to 27.
Figure 3: Orthopantomogram revealing no osseous changes with slight to moderate generalized horizontal bone loss

Click here to view


On the basis of severity and extent of GO, gingival ulcerations, gingival bleeding, palatal ecchymosis, and systemic features, a provisional diagnosis of leukemia was made.

The patient was immediately advised complete hemogram which revealed noticeably increased leukocyte count, reduced hemoglobin, and thrombocytes [Table 1]. He was immediately referred to the Department of Oncology, Maharaja Yeshwantrao Hospital, Indore, for further investigation and opinion. The patient was diagnosed as AML (myeloblastic type) on the basis of findings of peripheral blood smear [Figure 4]a and [Figure 4]b and bone marrow biopsy. Liver function test, renal function test, screening of hepatitis, and HIV were also conducted [Table 2]. Tests for HIV and hepatitis were negative. The differential white blood cell count and bone marrow biopsy showed 95% blast cells confirming diagnosis of AML [Table 3]. The patient was hospitalized and treatment commenced. However, the patient's condition deteriorated in the next few days, and unfortunately, he succumbed on the 7th day after diagnosis.
Table 1: Hematologic findings of peripheral blood smear

Click here to view
Figure 4: (a and b) Peripheral blood smear of acute myeloid leukemia patient showing numerous blast cells mainly immature leukocytes, erythrocytes, and thrombocytes at (a) ×40; (b) ×100. Black arrow indicates myeloblast cells

Click here to view
Table 2: Liver Function Test & Renal Function Test

Click here to view
Table 3: Bone marrow aspiration report

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


Oral manifestations are observed in 15%–80% of leukemic cases and have been suggested as the potential marker of AML.[10] Differential diagnosis of leukemic gingival enlargement with other gingival enlargement is important because of its lethal and poor clinical outcome. In the present case, there was no positive history of drugs related to DIGO, and there were no other syndromic conditions; therefore, both these entities were ruled out. Positive oral manifestations such as GO, petechiae, ulcerations, and gingival bleeding are attributed to pancytopenia. Pancytopenia may also attribute to severe viral, bacterial, and fungal infections.[11]

Gingival ulcerations and GO may be due to either neutropenia or direct infiltration by the leukemic cells.[12] In the present case, GO was absent in the edentulous region, attributed to the fact that leukemic gingival enlargement is primarily the result of leukemic infiltrate adjacent to bacterial plaque surface.[13] This infiltration leads to increase in gingival thickness and formation of pseudopockets, consequently resulting in secondarily inflammatory component. These oral manifestations and systemic features have led us to the diagnosis of AML.

No specific etiology has been established for AML till date, but various risk factors have been mentioned such as previous chemotherapy/radiation therapy, myelodysplastic syndromes, gene mutation, smoking, exposure to benzene and carcinogenic chemicals, and viral infections (Epstein–Barr virus).

Complete blood count with differential leukocyte count is performed for the preliminary diagnosis of leukemia, which can be further confirmed and graded with bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. Biopsy of gingival tissue can also reveal leukemic infiltrates responsible for altered appearance of gingiva; however, the mere absence of leukemic infiltrates does not rule out the possibility of leukemia.


   Conclusion Top


In the present case, the author(s) highlight the need of careful attention on oral manifestations and their correlation with systemic involvement. This may help us in prompt and accurate diagnosis and early management of potentially serious and lethal disease, thereby improving the clinical outcomes.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Guan G, Firth N. Oral manifestations as an early clinical sign of acute myeloid leukaemia: A case report. Aust Dent J 2015;60:123-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Agrawal AA. Gingival enlargements: Differential diagnosis and review of literature. World J Clin Cases 2015;3:779-88.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Carranza FA, Hogan EL. Gingival enlargement. In: Newman MG, Takei H, Klokkevold PR, Carranza FA, editors. Carranza's Clinical Periodontology. 12th ed. Missouri: Elsevier Saunders; 2015. p. 232.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Meyers J, Yu Y, Kaye JA, Davis KL. Medicare fee-for-service enrollees with primary acute myeloid leukemia: An analysis of treatment patterns, survival, and healthcare resource utilization and costs. Appl Health Econ Health Policy 2013;11:275-86.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Amanat D, Zahedani SM. Oral manifestations of systemic diseases: A review. Int J Dent Clin 2013;5:13-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Stafford R, Sonis S, Lockhart P, Sonis A. Oral pathoses as diagnostic indicators in leukemia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1980;50:134-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Lynch MA, Ship II. Oral manifestations of leukemia: A post diagnostic study. J Am Dent Assoc 1967;75:1139-44.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Islam NM, Bhattacharyya I, Cohen DM. Common oral manifestations of systemic disease. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2011;44:161-82, vi.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Schlosser BJ, Pirigyi M, Mirowski GW. Oral manifestations of hematologic and nutritional diseases. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2011;44:183-203, vii.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Bodey GP. Oral complications of the myeloproliferative diseases. Postgrad Med 1971;49:115-21.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
McKenna SJ. Leukemia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2000;89:137-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Dreizen S, McCredie KB, Keating MJ, Luna MA. Malignant gingival and skin “infiltrates” in adult leukemia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1983;55:572-9.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Klokkevold PR, Mealey BL. Influence of systemic conditions. In: Newman MG, Takei H, Klokkevold PR, Carranza FA, editors. Carranza's Clinical Periodontology. 12th ed. Missouri: Elsevier Saunders; 2015. p. 191-5.  Back to cited text no. 13
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
   
 
  Search
 
  
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
   Case Report
   Discussion
   Conclusion
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1077    
    Printed14    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded92    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal