|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 78-83
Management of multiple recession defects in esthetic zone using platelet-rich fibrin membrane: A 36-month follow-up case report
Prabhjeet Singh1, Sagrika Shukla2, Kuldeep Singh3
1 Smile Arc Dental Care, Jammu and Kashmir, India
2 Department of Dentistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India
3 Department of Dentistry, Rabindra Nath Tagore Medical College, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
|Date of Submission||15-Nov-2017|
|Date of Acceptance||08-Feb-2018|
|Date of Web Publication||28-Feb-2018|
Dr. Sagrika Shukla
Department of Dentistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh - 249 203, Uttarakhand
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
A patient undergoing orthodontic treatment presented with multiple recession defects in maxillary anterior region. After thorough clinical examination and assessment, measurements were recorded. Maxillary anterior teeth with recession defects of 3–4 mm were treated with coronally advanced flap and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) membrane. Regular follow-up was maintained for the patient at 3, 6 , 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months. After 36 months, significant root coverage of 100 percent was observed in four defects and 50% coverage in one defect. This shows that PRF membrane along with coronally advanced provides a predictable and significant result for management of recession defects.
Keywords: Coronally advanced flap, platelet-rich fibrin, regeneration
|How to cite this article:|
Singh P, Shukla S, Singh K. Management of multiple recession defects in esthetic zone using platelet-rich fibrin membrane: A 36-month follow-up case report. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2018;22:78-83
|How to cite this URL:|
Singh P, Shukla S, Singh K. Management of multiple recession defects in esthetic zone using platelet-rich fibrin membrane: A 36-month follow-up case report. J Indian Soc Periodontol [serial online] 2018 [cited 2020 Jun 4];22:78-83. Available from: http://www.jisponline.com/text.asp?2018/22/1/78/226365
| Introduction|| |
Gingival recession is multifactorial and universally creates esthetic and functional problems for patients. Since the last century, 1902 to be precise, researchers and clinicians have been searching for a treatment strategy to provide cure from gingival recession. However, advancements in treatment protocols prove that no technique is better than the other. In Cochrane-based systematic analysis by Chambrone et al., subepithelial connective tissue grafts (CTGs) are considered better for root coverage procedures. However, in another systematic analysis, according to Roccuzzo et al., coronally advanced flap (CAF) and its outcome, when combined with a CTG (bilaminar technique), is considered as the gold standard. Nonetheless, long-term stability of the graft hugely depends on the anatomic placement of the tooth, stability of the graft, and blood supply.
In recent times, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and its various forms such as liquid, membrane, and clot have gained tremendous importance for soft-tissue enhancement. It is a second-generation autologous platelet concentrate, developed by Dohan EDM, et al. which helps in healing of the tissues by releasing an array of growth factors. The main advantage of using PRF is its capability to neovascularize the injured site. Moreover, when it comes to membrane, it consists of a fibrin three-dimensional polymerized matrix with incorporated platelets, leukocytes, growth factors, and presence of circulating stem cells.
Anatomically, malpositioned teeth and teeth movement (orthodontic treatment) have been considered as the precipitating factors for recession. Clinical studies have shown that tooth movement causes hard- and soft-tissue loss; however, the existing data are weak in terms of long-term effects of any root coverage treatment done in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. The aim of our report was to determine whether the addition of an autologous fibrin clot to CAF improved root coverage of multiple Miller Class I or II gingival recessions compared to CAF alone in patient undergoing orthodontic treatment who was followed up to 36 months.
| Case Report|| |
A 22-year male patient reported to the dental office with a chief complaint of receding gums and sensitivity to hot and cold in relation to the upper anterior teeth. The patient was undergoing orthodontic treatment before the chief complaint, the treatment was discontinued due to personal reasons, and the patient again wanted to continue with the orthodontic treatment. Clinical examination revealed a Class I Miller's defect in relation to 11, 13, 21, 22, and 23 [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]. Cervical abrasion was presented in relation to 11 [Figure 5]. Root coverage procedure was planned for the management of gingival recession in relation to maxillary anterior teeth involved. Cervical abrasion was restored with Glass ionomer cement thereafter CAF along with PRF membrane was planned for the management of gingival recession in relation to 13, 11, 21, 22, and 23.
Root coverage procedure was carried out in three stages.
- In Stage I, recession defect in relation to 13 was treated with CAF with PRF membrane before orthodontic brackets were placed
- In Stage II, after 3 weeks of Stage I, recession defect in relation to 22 and 23 was treated with CAF with PRF membrane before orthodontic brackets were placed. In Stage III, after 5 months of Stage II, recession defects in relation to 11 and 21 were treated with CAF with PRF membrane.
The surgical procedure was explained to the patient, and a written informed consent was obtained. The patient was healthy, without any medical condition and nonallergic to the local anesthetic agent and other medications. Preparation of the patient included scaling and root planing of the entire dentition and oral hygiene instruction. Necessary clinical measurements were recorded using either Hu Friedy UNC-15 probe or Hu Friedy William's Probe with the help of arbitrary markings on the tooth [Table 1].
After proper cleaning and isolation of the surgical field, the operative sites were anesthetized using 2% xylocaine hydrochloride with adrenaline (1:200,000).
Horizontal incision was given at the level of cementoenamel junction (CEJ) at the interdental area, and crevicular incision was made around the teeth with recession defects in continuation with horizontal incisions. Vertical releasing incisions up to mucogingival junction was given to raise a trapezoidal full thickness flap, vertical incisions were advanced beyond mucogingival junction to raise further a partial thickness flap to allow coronal repositioning of the flap without tension. Papillae were deepithelialized to create a connective tissue bed. Root planing was done after which PRF membrane was placed just below the CEJ [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8]. The PRF membrane was stabilized with the help of sutures after which the flap was coronally repositioned cover the membrane and was held in that position with the help of interrupted sling sutures [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11]. Vertical incisions are sutured with simple loop sutures. Periodontal dressing (COE pack) was placed.
|Figure 6: Flap reflection and placement of platelet-rich fibrin membrane irt 13|
Click here to view
|Figure 7: Flap reflection and placement of platelet-rich fibrin membrane irt 22, 23|
Click here to view
|Figure 8: Flap reflection and placement of platelet-rich fibrin membrane irt 11, 21|
Click here to view
Postoperatively, patients were prescribed 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash for 4 weeks, systemic antibiotics, i.e., augmentin 625 BD for 3 days and analgesic ibuprofen 400 mg + paracetamol 325 mg and cold therapy if required. Postoperative instructions were given. Both dressings and sutures were removed 10 days after surgery to ensure proper adaptation and stabilization of the flap and membrane. The rest of the two surgical procedures were commenced in the same manner along with same postoperative care.
Healing was uneventful with no postoperative complications in all the surgical phases. Postoperative examination was done after 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months.
Platelet-rich fibrin preparation
A volume of 10 ml of blood was drawn in 10 ml vacutainer tubes without an anticoagulant and centrifuged immediately using a tabletop centrifuge (REMY laboratories) for 10 min at 3000 rpm.
The resultant product consisted of the following three layers [Figure 12]:
- Topmost layer consisting of acellular plasma (PPP)
- PRF clot in the middle [Figure 13]
- Red blood cells at the bottom.
|Figure 13: Platelet-rich fibrin clot, ready to be converted into membrane|
Click here to view
PRF membrane can be obtained by squeezing out the fibrin clot.
| Results|| |
After follow-up of 36 months, 100% root coverage was achieved in relation to 13, 21, 22, and 23 [Figure 14], [Figure 15], [Figure 16] and 50% coverage in relation to 11 [Figure 16] and [Table 1]. It was observed that patient was maintaining good oral hygiene and partial root coverage in relation 11 cannot be attributed to oral hygiene.
| Discussion|| |
Gingival recession is multifactorial and its treatment becomes challenging when it comes to restoring tissues, providing as esthetic and functional comfort to the patient with minimal probing depth. As mentioned previously, there are various techniques available along with their modifications to treat gingival recessions, but these have been shown to heal with long junctional epithelium. Existing literature also shows that bilaminar technique using subepithelial CTGs has best results, histological studies show unpredictable healing, putting clinicians yet again in dilemma of a technique with predictable results.
During root coverage procedures, behavior of periodontal cells, especially fibroblasts, is critical for repair, thus providing right amount growth factors become paramount in shaping their activity and influencing the treatment outcomes. As a result, PRF in the form of membrane has gained popularity where it maintains all the properties of PRF clot and is restorable as layers to provide a continuous supply of growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factors, transforming growth factor beta, vascular endothelial growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1 which enhances fibroblast proliferation. Platelet growth factors also exhibit mitogenic and chemotactic properties promoting and modulating cellular functions involved in tissue healing and regeneration and cell proliferation. Since it is prepared from patients, own blood, it is nontoxic and nonimmunoreactive as it also eliminates the risk associated with the use of bovine thrombin.
In a 6-month long study by Del Corso et al. stated significant improvement during the early periodontal healing phase when multiple recession defects were treated with PRF along with CAF However, another randomized clinical trial by Aroca et al. reported inferior root coverage of 80.7% at the test site (CAF + PRF) as compared to 91.5% at control site (CAF), but an additional gain in gingival/mucosal thickness compared to conventional therapy. In a study conducted by Santamaria et al. to evaluate the treatment of gingival recession, associated with noncarious cervical lesions by a CTG alone, or in combination with a resin-modified glass ionomer restoration (CTG + R), it was stated that resin cements did not affect the treatment outcome. Whereas Martins et al., in another animal study concluded that, though restorative materials exhibit biocompatibility, but they also interfere in the development of bone and connective tissue attachment process.
Keeping the aforementioned advantages of PRF (as a membrane) in recession defects, root coverage procedure was carried out where PRF was placed 1 mm coronal to CEJ, meaning it was left exposed in the oral cavity. The healing was uneventful and did not show any signs of infection. Surgical Stage III was carried out after 5 months of Stage II so complete healing can take place for the previous surgery as the flap design was trapezoidal. Furthermore, staged treatment was protocol was adopted as the recent guidelines suggest root coverage before orthodontic treatment, thus the root coverage was done before the start of the orthodontic treatment and part after the placement of the brackets but no active tooth movement.
Results of our treatment procedure were in accordance with the results of studies conducted by Pazmiño et al. and Gupta et al. and promoted the coverage of the recession irt 11, 13, 21, 22, and 23 with PRF membrane. The results of this study are also in accordance with Agarwal et al., who reported successful mandibular root coverage. However, in a comparative study by Shetty and Chatterjee between amniotic membrane and PRF membrane, amniotic membrane had better results of root coverage. In authors's view, the advantage of this technique is that additional surgical site is not required for root coverage and is less expensive and less time-consuming, providing patient satisfaction. However, further such studies are required along with histological evaluation to comment upon the clinical stability, and long-term results of PRF-assisted root coverage procedures.
| Conclusion|| |
The use of autologous platelet concentrates, such as PRF in any form, helps in the regeneration of the lost tissue by the local delivery of growth factors enhancing wound healing primarily by angiogenesis. This case report reflects the success of PRF for coverage of multiple recession defects. However, long-term clinical and histological findings are required to state the nature of the attachment formed and success of the treatment outcome.
Declaration of patient consent
The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patient has given his consent for his images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patient understands that name and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Chambrone L, Sukekava F, Araújo MG, Pustiglioni FE, Chambrone LA, Lima LA, et al.
Root-coverage procedures for the treatment of localized recession-type defects: A Cochrane systematic review. J Periodontol 2010;81:452-78.
Roccuzzo M, Bunino M, Needleman I, Sanz M. Periodontal plastic surgery for treatment of localized gingival recessions: A systematic review. J Clin Periodontol 2002;29 Suppl 3:178-94.
Srinivas BV, Rupa N, Halini Kumari KV, Rajender A, Reddy MN. Treatment of gingival recession using free gingival graft with fibrin fibronectin sealing system: A novel approach. J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2015;7:S734-9.
Dohan Ehrenfest DM, Bielecki T, Jimbo R, Barbé G, Del Corso M, Inchingolo F, et al.
Do the fibrin architecture and leukocyte content influence the growth factor release of platelet concentrates? An evidence-based answer comparing a pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) gel and a leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF). Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2012;13:1145-52.
Ferreira CF, Carriel Gomes MC, Filho JS, Granjeiro JM, Oliveira Simões CM, Magini Rde S, et al.
Platelet-rich plasma influence on human osteoblasts growth. Clin Oral Implants Res 2005;16:456-60.
Dohan Ehrenfest DM, de Peppo GM, Doglioli P, Sammartino G. Slow release of growth factors and thrombospondin-1 in choukroun's platelet-rich fibrin (PRF): A gold standard to achieve for all surgical platelet concentrates technologies. Growth Factors 2009;27:63-9.
Chatzopoulou D, Johal A. Management of gingival recession in the orthodontic patient. Semin Orthod 2015;21:15-26.
Sunitha Raja V, Munirathnam Naidu E. Platelet-rich fibrin: Evolution of a second-generation platelet concentrate. Indian J Dent Res 2008;19:42-6.
Gupta R, Pandit N, Sharma M. Clinical evaluation of a bioresorbable membrane (polyglactin 910) in the treatment of miller type II gingival recession. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2006;26:271-7.
Anilkumar K, Geetha A, Umasudhakar, Ramakrishnan T, Vijayalakshmi R, Pameela E, et al.
Platelet-rich-fibrin: A novel root coverage approach. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2009;13:50-4.
Anitua E, Sánchez M, Zalduendo MM, de la Fuente M, Prado R, Orive G, et al.
Fibroblastic response to treatment with different preparations rich in growth factors. Cell Prolif 2009;42:162-70.
Dohan Ehrenfest DM. How to optimize the preparation of leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF, Choukroun's technique) clots and membranes: Introducing the PRF box. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010;110:275-8.
Gonshor A. Technique for producing platelet-rich plasma and platelet concentrate: Background and process. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2002;22:547-57.
Del Corso M, Sammartino G, Dohan Ehrenfest DM. Re: Clinical evaluation of a modified coronally advanced flap alone or in combination with a platelet-rich fibrin membrane for the treatment of adjacent multiple gingival recessions: A 6-month study. J Periodontol 2009;80:1694-7.
Aroca S, Keglevich T, Barbieri B, Gera I, Etienne D. Clinical evaluation of a modified coronally advanced flap alone or in combination with a platelet-rich fibrin membrane for the treatment of adjacent multiple gingival recessions: A 6-month study. J Periodontol 2009;80:244-52.
Santamaria MP, Ambrosano GM, Casati MZ, Nociti Júnior FH, Sallum AW, Sallum EA, et al.
Connective tissue graft plus resin-modified glass ionomer restoration for the treatment of gingival recession associated with non-carious cervical lesion: A randomized-controlled clinical trial. J Clin Periodontol 2009;36:791-8.
Martins TM, Bosco AF, Nóbrega FJ, Nagata MJ, Garcia VG, Fucini SE, et al.
Periodontal tissue response to coverage of root cavities restored with resin materials: A histomorphometric study in dogs. J Periodontol 2007;78:1075-82.
Johal A, Katsaros C, Kiliaridis S, Leitao P, Rosa M, Sculean A, et al.
State of the science on controversial topics: Orthodontic therapy and gingival recession (a report of the angle society of Europe 2013 meeting). Prog Orthod 2013;14:16.
Pazmiño VFC, Rodas MAR, Cáceres CDB, Duarte GGR, Azuaga MVC, de Paula BL, et al.
Clinical comparison of the subepithelial connective tissue versus platelet-rich fibrin for the multiple gingival recession coverage on anterior teeth using the tunneling technique. Case Rep Dent 2017;2017:4949710.
Gupta S, Banthia R, Singh P, Banthia P, Raje S, Aggarwal N, et al.
Clinical evaluation and comparison of the efficacy of coronally advanced flap alone and in combination with platelet rich fibrin membrane in the treatment of miller class I and II gingival recessions. Contemp Clin Dent 2015;6:153-60.
] [Full text]
Agarwal K, Chandra C, Agarwal K, Kumar N. Lateral sliding bridge flap technique along with platelet rich fibrin and guided tissue regeneration for root coverage. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2013;17:801-5.
] [Full text]
Shetty SS, Chatterjee A, Bose S. Bilateral multiple recession coverage with platelet-rich fibrin in comparison with amniotic membrane. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2014;18:102-6.
] [Full text]
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11], [Figure 12], [Figure 13], [Figure 14], [Figure 15], [Figure 16]