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   Table of Contents    
CASE REPORT
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 64-67  

Interdisciplinary approach to enhance the esthetics of maxillary anterior region using soft- and hard-tissue ridge augmentation in conjunction with a fixed partial prosthesis


1 Department of Periodontology, Government College of Dentistry, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
2 Department of Prosthodontics, Government College of Dentistry, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India

Date of Submission05-Jun-2015
Date of Acceptance24-Jan-2018
Date of Web Publication28-Feb-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ajay Chouksey
Department of Periodontology, Government College of Dentistry, Room No. 10, Sardar Patel Marg, Near M Y Hospital, Indore - 452 001, Madhya Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_183_15

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   Abstract 


Favorable esthetics is one of the most important treatment outcomes in dentistry, and to achieve this, interdisciplinary approaches are often required. Ridge deficiencies can be corrected for both, soft- and hard-tissue discrepancies. To overcome such defects, not only a variety of prosthetic options are at our disposal but also several periodontal plastic surgical techniques are available as well. Various techniques have been described and revised, over the year to correct ridge defects. For enhancing soft-tissue contours in the anterior region, the subepithelial connective tissue graft is the treatment of choice. A combination of alloplastic bone graft in adjunct to connective tissue graft optimizes ridge augmentation and minimizes defects. The present case report describes the use of vascular interpositional connective tissue graft in combination with alloplastic bone graft for correction of Seibert's Class III ridge deficiency followed by a fixed partial prosthesis to achieve a better esthetic outcome.

Keywords: Bone graft, ridge augmentation, vascular interpositional connective tissue graft


How to cite this article:
Khetarpal S, Chouksey A, Bele A, Vishnoi R. Interdisciplinary approach to enhance the esthetics of maxillary anterior region using soft- and hard-tissue ridge augmentation in conjunction with a fixed partial prosthesis. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2018;22:64-7

How to cite this URL:
Khetarpal S, Chouksey A, Bele A, Vishnoi R. Interdisciplinary approach to enhance the esthetics of maxillary anterior region using soft- and hard-tissue ridge augmentation in conjunction with a fixed partial prosthesis. J Indian Soc Periodontol [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Nov 14];22:64-7. Available from: http://www.jisponline.com/text.asp?2018/22/1/64/226360




   Introduction Top


In today's world, patient demands for optimum functional and esthetic prosthetic restorations have increased. Therefore, replacement of teeth in esthetically demanding areas such as the maxillary anterior region not only requires restorations and prosthesis of correct form and shade but also establishment of natural appearance of the surrounding periodontal tissues and the pink esthetic. One of the major problems faced by prosthodontists is inadequacy of alveolar ridges or deformed ridges. Inadequate ridge contours are a common outcome following the loss of teeth, traumatic teeth removal, severe periodontal disease, endodontic failure, implant failure, traumatic accidents, and developmental defects.[1] Morphologically, Seibert classified the alveolar ridge defects into three groups (1983).[2] Later, Allen introduced a classification with subgroups to indicate the severity of alteration in millimeters.[3]

To overcome the problem of alveolar ridge deficiency either pontic teeth can be made too long or pink ceramics can be added. There is a possibility that such modifications might lead to unesthetic appearance and also food and plaque retention, which further would lead to inflammation followed by periodontal disease. It may also lead to unesthetic open gingival embrasures (black triangles) and cause phonetic, masticatory, and oral hygiene difficulties.[4] Therefore, surgical correction of the ridge deficiencies is necessary not only for the correction of esthetic problems but also for optimum functioning of prosthesis.

Vascular interpositioned connective tissue (VIP-CT) flap was introduced by Sclar in 2003; it is an anteriorly based pediculated tissue of palatal submucosa that is composed of periosteum and connective tissue allied for ridge augmentation.[5] The advantages of the VIP-CT graft technique is that it allows reconstruction of large soft-tissue deficiency, with less constriction postoperatively. Furthermore, it facilitates improved hard-tissue augmentation due to additional blood supply and improved healing. Furthermore, this flap minimizes the risk of reduction of attached gingiva which is secondary to ridge augmentation procedures.

In major ridge defects such as Sibert's Class III mild subtype C, soft-tissue augmentation alone does not satisfactorily fill the ridge defect; hence, hard-tissue augmentation in the form of alloplastic bone graft in conjunction with soft-tissue grafting should be the treatment of choice. The following clinical report describes a soft-tissue and hard-tissue ridge augmentation technique for correction of maxillary anterior ridge defect by using the VIP-CT graft along with alloplastic bone graft, followed by prosthetic rehabilitation, to achieve maximum esthetic outcome.


   Case Report Top


A 45-year-old male patient was referred to the Department of Periodontology from Department of Prosthodontics, Government College of Dentistry, Indore, for correction of a ridge defect in maxillary right anterior region so that prosthetic rehabilitation can be planned in harmony with surrounding soft tissues, which is ideal. The patient did not have any positive relevant medical history. The dental history revealed that his maxillary right central and lateral incisor teeth had mobility due to trauma and road traffic accident and were extracted three to 4 months prior. The alveolar ridge defect was a Siebert's Class III, Allen's mild Type C, between maxillary right canine and maxillary left central incisor [Figure 1]. After thorough evaluation of the history, clinical condition, and radiological investigations, surgical correction of the defect area by VIP-CT graft, harvested from the palate, in combination with alloplastic (hydroxyapatite and β tricalcium phosphate) bone graft was planned since hydroxyl appetite is a slow-resorbing alloplastic bone graft material; it will help in maintaining the volume of defect fill. Surgical options were discussed and explained to the patient, and written consent was obtained for the same, before the treatment.
Figure 1: Intraoral preoperative view showing Seibert's Class III defect

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Surgical procedure

Following a presurgical rinse with chlorhexidine and administration of local anesthesia (2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine), a labial full-thickness flap was elevated by giving crestal incision extending from maxillary right canine to maxillary left central incisor followed by two vertical releasing incisions, and the ridge defect was exposed [Figure 2]a. A VIP-CT pedicled graft was harvested from the palate [Figure 2]b. The surgical outline for VIP-CT graft is given in [Figure 3].[6] After thorough debridement of the bony defect and removal of all the granulation tissue present, alloplastic bone graft (Sybograft-plus [Eucare Pharmaceuticals(p) Limited, Chennai, India]) (hydroxyapatite and β tricalcium phosphate) was condensed into the defect using a graft carrier, thus increasing the width in the buccal palatal aspect [Figure 4]a. The VIP-CT graft which was harvested at the beginning of the procedure was then placed and sutured [Figure 4]b over the bone graft, to increase the width as well as the apicocoronal height of the ridge. The flap was sutured back with 3–0 silk suture [Figure 4]c.
Figure 2: (a) A labial full-thickness flap was elevated; (b) Vascular interpositional connective tissue pedicled graft

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Figure 3: Surgical outline for harvesting vascular interpositional connective tissue pedicled graft

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Figure 4: (a) Placement of bone graft in defect; (b) vascular interpositioned connective tissue graft was placed and sutured; (c) the flap was sutured back with 3-0 silk suture

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The patient was instructed for daily chlorhexidine mouth rinsing, and systemic antibiotics and analgesics were prescribed (amoxicillin 500 mg, thrice daily for 5 days; ibuprofen 400 mg, thrice daily for 3 days). The sutures were removed after 10 days [Figure 5], and the patient was recalled for follow-up every month. The final fixed prosthesis was cemented after 6 months once adequate soft- and hard-tissue healing of the defect, leading to improved esthetics of the patient [Figure 6], was seen. The patient was recalled after 3 months and 6 months for regular follow-ups [Figure 7]a and [Figure 7]b.
Figure 5: Postoperative view after 10 days

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Figure 6: Immediate after porcelain fused to metal restoration with 13 12 11 21

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Figure 7: Postoperative view (a) after 3 months, (b) after 6 months

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   Discussion Top


Ridge deformities secondary to trauma are frequently encountered by dentists and can affect the overall esthetic and the restorative outcome of planned treatments. Although autogenous bone grafts (as block or particulate form) remain the gold standard for ridge augmentation, donor site morbidity and the need for second surgery associated with block graft harvest have turned attention toward the use of alloplastic graft materials. Connective tissue and onlay grafts have been the most frequently used procedures for Type II and III Seibert's ridge deformities. However, the onlay graft proposes certain drawbacks and limitations, including postoperative necrosis and unpredictable shrinkage of the graft. Subepithelial connective tissue graft is still considered the gold standard.[7] In severe ridge defects, the combined use of an alloplastic bone graft and connective tissue graft provides additional augmentation not achievable with either of the procedures alone. Simultaneous hard- and soft-tissue augmentation is possible by the use of VIP-CT graft concomitant with bone grafting. VIP-CT being a pedicled graft protects the underlying bone graft, nourishes it, and simultaneously vertically augments the region. It also preserves the color and characteristics of overlying mucosa resulting in a better esthetic blend, especially in a potentially highly visible area. VIP-CT graft eliminates the need for membrane and reduces the cost, along with improving the histology of ridge crest.[8] Therefore, it is a reliable method for reconstruction. Previous techniques used for the ridge augmentation procedure were associated with less gain in volume, as the graft size was limited; furthermore, the use of large onlay grafts may results in lack of blood supply leading to necrosis.[9],[10] In case of larger graft changes of necrosis is more and also leads to more of an injury to the donor site.[11] A full thickness onlaygraft can be harvested to a limit therefore, larger defect cannot be treated with a full thickness onlay graft.VIP-CT graft favors less injury to the donor site and a good amount of graft size.


   Conclusion Top


This clinical report suggests that soft-tissue augmentation with VIP-CT graft from the palate in combination with an alloplastic bone graft is a viable and predictable treatment procedure to provide an ideal gingival contour and soft-tissue profile, thereby precluding the need for modifications or compromises in the final prosthesis, and thus enhance the overall result.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Orth CF. A modification of the connective tissue graft procedure for the treatment of type II and type III ridge deformities. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 1996;16:266-77.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]    
2.
De Melo LG, Neto JS, Teixeira W, Ciporkin F, Figueiredo CM. Application of a modified roll technique to ridge augmentation before implant surgery: A case report. Perio 2000 2006;3:49-56.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Allen EP, Gainza CS, Farthing GG, Newbold DA. Improved technique for localized ridge augmentation. A report of 21 cases. J Periodontol 1985;56:195-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
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4.
Anasane NS, Chitnis D, MeshramS. Enhancing aesthetics in anterior fixed partial denture by soft tissue ridge augmentation: A clinical report. Indian Journal of Dent Edu 2011;4:13-16.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Sclar A. The vascularized interpositional periosteal connective tissue (VIP-CT) flap. In: Sclar A, editor. Soft Tissue and Esthetic Considerations in Implant Therapy. Chicago: Quintessence Publishing; 2003. p. 163.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Cohen ES, editor. Papillary reconstruction. In: Atlas of Cosmetic and Reconstructive Periodontal Surgery. 3rd ed. USA: PMPH; 2007. p. 269.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Studer S, Naef R, Schärer P. Adjustment of localized alveolar ridge defects by soft tissue transplantation to improve mucogingival esthetics: A proposal for clinical classification and an evaluation of procedures. Quintessence Int 1997;28:785-805.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Rahpeyma A, Khajehahmadi S. Vascularized interpositional periosteal connective tissue flap in implant dentistry. J Dent Implants 2014;4:29-32.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Seibert JS, Salama H. Alveolar ridge preservation and reconstruction. Periodontol 2000. 1996;11:69–84.[PubMed]  Back to cited text no. 9
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10.
Agarwal C, Deora S, Abrahm D, Gaba R, Kumar BT, Kudva P. Vascularized interpositional periosteal connective tissue flap: A modern approach to augment soft tissue. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2015;19:72-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
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11.
Gasparini DO. Double-fold connective tissue pedicle graft: a novel approach for ridge augmentation. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2004;24:280-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7]



 

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