Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 321-325

Poor periodontal health as a risk factor for development of pre-eclampsia in pregnant women


1 Department of Periodontics, School of Dental Sciences, Sharda University, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Dr. Z. A Dental College, AMU, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Shailesh Varshney
Department of Periodontics, School of Dental Sciences, Sharda University, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: Indian Council of Medical Research, Short Term Student Study,, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-124X.134569

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Aims: Periodontal disease has been considered a systemic exposure implicated in a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether maternal oral health is associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia. Subjects and Methods: A case-control study was conducted which included 40 pregnant women patients admitted to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, J.N. Medical College, A.M.U, Aligarh. Pre-eclampsia was defined as classic triad of hypertension, proteinuria and symptoms such as swelling/edema esp. in hands and face, headache, visual changes etc., A periodontal examination was done during 48 h after child delivery. Maternal oral status was evaluated using gingival index by Loe and Silness, oral hygiene index (simplified) by greene and vermillion and periodontal pockets and clinical attachment level (CAL). Statistical Analysis: Null hypothesis that no difference exist between the two groups (pre-eclamptic and non-pre-eclamptic Group) was calculated using paired t-test, Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U statistical tests using SPSS 11.5 (Statistical Package for Social sciences, Chicago). P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The amount of gingival inflammation, oral hygiene levels, pocket depth and CALs as measured by their respective indices were higher in the pre-eclamptic group when compared to non-pre-eclamptic group. Furthermore CAL was significantly increased in the test group. This study showed that pre-eclamptic cases were more likely to develop periodontal disease (P < 0.05). 30% of the test group and 65% of the case group had periodontal disease (P < 0.05) which had shown that pre-eclamptic cases were 4.33 times more likely to have periodontal disease (odds ratio = 4.33). Conclusions: Maternal oral status was determined to be associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia.


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