Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 306-310

Salivary TNF-alpha: A potential marker of periodontal destruction

Department of Periodontics, Dr. Z A Dental College, AMU, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Pritma Singh
C/O Vinod Aggrawal Near Kalyan Singh Kothi, Marris Road, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0972-124X.134566

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Aims and Objectives: (1) To evaluate the effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus on salivary TNF-α level in chronic periodontitis. (2) To evaluate the effect of smoking on salivary TNF-α level in chronic periodontitis. (3) To compare and correlate TNF-α level with the healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: Subjects aged 30-35 years were included for the study and divided into four groups as a group of 20 systemically and periodontally healthy individuals (group I), a group of 20 subjects with pocket probing depth (PPD) ≥5 mm and clinical attachment loss (CAL) of ≥2 mm (group II), a group of 20 diabetic subjects (of more than 5 years) with periodontal parameters as of group II as (group III) and a group of 20 subjects smoking (≥10 cigarettes a day) with periodontal parameters of group II as (group IV). Periodontal parameters of PPD, CAL, gingival index (GI), and plaque index (PI) were measured using standard indices and criteria. Three milliliter of unstimulated saliva was taken and salivary TNF-α determined by using ELISA technique (Quantikine Human total TNF-A immunoassay kit). Results: Data revealed highest mean TNF-α in group III followed by group IV, group II, and group I. Mean TNF-α of both group III (76.1%) and group IV (48.8%) was significantly higher as compared to group I (P < 0.001). Mean TNF-α of group III was also found to be significantly different and higher (68.1%) as compared to group II (P < 0.001). Although higher mean TNF-α (31.5%) was found in group IV in comparison to group II, the difference was not statistically significant. Besides above, TNF-α also showed a direct positive correlation with PPD in group II (r = 0.30, P > 0.05) and a significant negative correlation was observed between CAL and TNF-α in group IV. Conclusion: Our study clearly underlines a profound impact of diabetes and smoking on salivary TNF-α in chronic periodontitis subjects in comparison to healthy subjects. Moreover, diabetes status increased TNF-α significantly in comparison to smoking in chronic periodontitis patients.

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