Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 69-73

Schizophrenia and periodontal disease: An oro-neural connection? A cross-sectional epidemiological study

Department of Periodontics, Bangalore Institute of Dental Sciences and Postgraduate Research, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Shreya Shetty
Department of Periodontics, Bangalore Institute of Dental Sciences and Postgraduate Research, Hosur Road, Bangalore - 560 029, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0972-124X.128222

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Background: Schizophrenia is a psychosis characterized by delusions and hallucinations occurring in clear consciousness. Studies have shown that the cytokines may modulate dopaminergic metabolism and schizophrenic symptomatology in schizophrenia. Cytokine involvement in periodontal disease is also well documented. To date, however, there has been relatively little research assessing periodontal status of patients with schizophrenia. The present study was therefore mainly intended to understand the exact link, if any, between periodontal disease and schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 schizophrenic patients (140 males and 110 females), between 25 and 55 years of age, were selected from the out patient department of National Institute of Mental Health and Neural Sciences, Bangalore and their periodontal status was assessed as part of this cross-sectional epidemiological survey. Results: ANOVA showed that there was increased evidence of poor periodontal condition, as evidenced by gingival index and plaque index in patients who had been schizophrenic for a longer duration of time (P < 0.001). So also, higher probing pocket depths were found in schizophrenics suffering from a longer period of time than others (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Although oral neglect might be a cause of poor periodontal health in schizophrenics, the possible link between periodontal diseases giving rise to schizophrenia cannot be overlooked due to the presence of cytokine activity which is present both in schizophrenia and periodontal disease.

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