|Year : 2013 | Volume
| Issue : 6 | Page : 812-815
Non-surgical treatment of peri-implantitis with the adjunctive use of an 810-nm diode laser
Marisa Roncati1, Alessandra Lucchese2, Francesco Carinci2
1 Department of Specialistic and Odontostomatologic Clinical Sciences, School for Dental Hygienists, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona, Italy
2 Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
|Date of Submission||08-Feb-2013|
|Date of Acceptance||18-Feb-2013|
|Date of Web Publication||7-Jan-2014|
Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Corso della Giovecca 203, 44100 Ferrara
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
An 810-nm diode laser was used to non-surgically treat a 7-mm pocket around an implant that had five threads of bone loss, BoP+, and exudate, and the patient was followed up for 5 years. Non-surgical treatment, home care reinforcement, clinical indices records, and radiographic examination were completed in two consecutive 1-h appointments within 24 h. The patient was monitored frequently for the first 3 months. Subsequently, maintenance debridement visits were scheduled at 3-month intervals. The patient had a decreased probing pocket depth and a negative BoP index compared to initial clinical data, and the results were stable after 1 year. After 5 years of follow-up visits, there appeared to be rebound of the bone level radiographically. Within the limits of this case report, conventional non-surgical periodontal therapy with the adjunctive use of an 810-nm diode laser may be a feasible alternative approach for the management of peri-implantitis. The 5-year clinical and radiographic outcomes indicated maintenance of the clinical improvement.
Keywords: Diode laser, inflammation, non-surgical periodontal treatment, peri-implantitis, periodontal maintenance
|How to cite this article:|
Roncati M, Lucchese A, Carinci F. Non-surgical treatment of peri-implantitis with the adjunctive use of an 810-nm diode laser. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2013;17:812-5
|How to cite this URL:|
Roncati M, Lucchese A, Carinci F. Non-surgical treatment of peri-implantitis with the adjunctive use of an 810-nm diode laser. J Indian Soc Periodontol [serial online] 2013 [cited 2019 Aug 25];17:812-5. Available from: http://www.jisponline.com/text.asp?2013/17/6/812/124531
| Introduction|| |
Peri-implantitis is inflammation of the peri-implant supporting tissue, which can lead to progressive loss of supporting bone, if untreated. 
A history of periodontitis, poor oral hygiene, and smoking are considered risk factors for peri-implant diseases.  It is of paramount importance to treat periodontitis of the residual dentition prior to implant placement. A higher implant failure rate and elevated number of sites with peri-implant bone loss were documented in periodontally compromised patients who did not adhere to comprehensive supportive periodontal therapy. Customized and correctly performed supportive periodontal therapy is essential to enhance the long-term outcome of implant therapy. 
The outcome of non-surgical periodontal treatment (NSPT) of peri-implantitis is unpredictable. Although minor beneficial effects of laser therapy on peri-implantitis have been shown, this method requires further evaluation. 
The diode laser is not an ablative instrument and can directly contact the implant surfaces without inducing melting, cracking, or crater formation.  The 810-nm diode laser, when used in accordance with appropriate parameters, does not damage titanium surfaces, which is useful when uncovering submerged implants,  and can be used to treat bacterial induced peri-implantitis. 
The use of laser treatment in periodontal therapy is an emerging therapeutic option, although little reliable evidence suggests that it can effectively treat peri-implantitis. 
| Case Report|| |
A 45-year-old male presented with pain and swelling at a mandibular implant site (Nobel Biocare, SW). Clinical examination revealed a deep pocket [7-mm pocket depth (PD)] and bleeding on probing [Figure 1], with suppuration and gingival inflammatory edema at the implant site. The patient was in good general health, did not take any medications, and was an occasional smoker (4-5 cigarettes/day).
|Figure 1: Clinical examination revealed 7-mm probing depths, circumferentially around a mandibular implant, bleeding on probing, and the presence of exudate and gingival inflammatory edema|
Click here to view
No occlusal trauma or parafunctional habits were detected.
A periapical radiograph demonstrated bone loss of five fixture threads on the most distal mandibular left implant, when compared to the original radiograph [Figure 2].
|Figure 2: Periapical radiography shows bone loss for five fixture threads on the most distal mandibular left implant|
Click here to view
The patient was eventually scheduled for periodontal surgery to treat the inflammatory lesion, but emergency intervention was indicated to disinfect the area by removing the bacterial biofilm and alleviating pain using an 810-nm diode laser [Figure 3]. No local anesthesia or systemic antibiotics were administered.
The patient was asked to rinse with undiluted chlorhexidine 0.2% for 1 min. After insertion of the optical fiber parallel to the long axis of the implant 1 mm from the most apical portion of the pocket, the diode insert was moved in an apico-coronal and mesio-distal direction for 30 sec at each inflamed implant site. It was used at a power of 0.5 W in a continuous wave (cw) [equivalent to 1 W in pulsating mode (pw) for 30 s] in duplicate on each site, for a total time of 360 sec with a fluence of 1.96 J/cm 2 .
|Figure 3: The patient was treated using an 810-nm diode laser to disinfect the area and facilitate bacterial biofilm removal by mechanical and manual periodontal instrumentation|
Click here to view
Non-surgical periodontal instrumentation was performed with hand instrumentation using a titan curette (Roncati Implant Care, by Martin KLS) and a piezoelectric ultrasonic device with plastic fused to a metal insert (Piezon Master 700, EMS, PI insert), as needed. Finally, a 0.5% chlorhexidine gel was deposited into the sulcus with a disposable syringe and a blunt needle.
These procedures were repeated the following day.
The area was checked for plaque removal and home care compliance for the first month on a weekly basis and was followed by routine supportive periodontal therapy at 3-month intervals. The adjunctive use of the diode laser was included in the conventional periodontal maintenance every 6 months for the following 3 years.
Periodontal indices were documented and intraoral periapical radiographs were taken at the 1-year [Figure 4], and 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year [Figure 5] and [Figure 6] follow-up recall appointments.
Satisfactory results were obtained by the application of laser-assisted non-surgical peri-implant therapy. Periodontal pocket depth was reduced from 7 to 3 mm with no bleeding upon probing. Intraoral periapical radiographs, taken for up to 5 years post-non-surgical treatment, provide evidence of some improvement of the bone level. The reduction of periodontal pockets is probably due to re-epithelialization, with formation of a long junctional epithelial attachment.
| Discussion|| |
At the 6 th European Workshop on Periodontology, it was reported that mechanical non-surgical therapy with an adjunct of local antibiotics or laser application was effective longitudinally  to reduce bleeding on probing and PDs over a period of 6-12 months. However, the outcome is unpredictable due to possible re-infection related to the inability to completely remove bacterial deposits from titanium implant surfaces, thus interfering with new histological bone-to-implant contact.  The primary objective of non-surgical treatment for peri-implantitis is to remove bacterial contaminants to allow resolution of the inflammatory lesion. 
To date, no critical probing depths in the therapy of peri-implant diseases have been defined to guide selection of a non-surgical or surgical approach. Laser treatment may serve as an alternative or adjunctive treatment to conventional periodontal mechanical therapy or peri-implantitis.
Clinical application of lasers to treat periodontal disease is increasing, but remains controversial.
Diode lasers have a bactericidal effect due to a localized increase in temperature, which has been verified in vivo using DNA probes that detect periodontal pathogens.  Threaded implants have a different morphology than root surfaces; therefore, debridement instruments might be different. The laser may be a valuable tool to detoxify the implant surface [Figure 7], and significant bacterial reduction should lead to a more satisfactory recovery.  It is possible to point the diode laser insert toward the wall of the ulcerated pocket epithelium to kill virulent periodontal pathogens. Vaporization of granulomatous tissue seems to result in a more favorable effect compared to that of solo instrumentation. 
|Figure 7: The diode laser has mainly bactericidal effect. Threaded implants have a different morphology than root surfaces; therefore, debridement instruments may differ. The laser may facilitate detoxification of the implant surface|
Click here to view
The diode laser detoxifies root and implant surfaces by inactivating bacterial endotoxins.  It is hemostatic and produces no smear layer. The thermal effect weakens calculus chemical adhesion to the root and/or implant, facilitating its removal by curette or ultrasonic devices.  The diode laser also stimulates fibroblasts and osteoblasts,  which, in turn, cause increased production of RNA messengers, leading to significant collagen production during periodontal tissue healing. The patient experienced no postoperative discomfort and he was able to comply with home care procedures, such as debridement, after the surgery. In contrast, patients often have post-treatment discomfort, and compliance with home care procedures decreases because the recommended home care protocols for plaque control are painful; this results in impaired healing.
Important changes were also detected in the patient: Bleeding, a marker of inflammation with a high prognostic value, was compared at baseline and at 1 year after laser-assisted periodontal therapy, and was reduced significantly to <20%. Absence of bleeding has a negative predictive value. 
Besides laser therapy, the following therapeutic interventions are recommended: Chlorhexidine gel placement, and manual and ultrasonic scaling. All of these combined may have contributed to healing, complicating isolation of the most effective modality. However, laser treatment alone has not been demonstrated to be sufficient. The laser has been used as an adjunct to many periodontal treatments, but it is not a replacement for conventional non-surgical treatment or proper home care with adequate patient compliance.
The absence of attached gingiva may be an etiological factor in the development of peri-implantitis; this issue is controversial. ,,,
| Conclusion|| |
Traditional protocols of non-surgical periodontal therapy, in conjunction with the use of an 810-nm diode laser, can be an effective alternative treatment modality for peri-implantitis. Other treatment options may successfully enhance resolution of peri-implant soft and hard tissue inflammation, and preserve long-term periodontal health. Regardless of the method used, correctly performed supportive periodontal therapy is a key factor in successful implant therapy.
| References|| |
|1.||Albrektson T, Isidor F. Consensus Report: Implant therapy. In: Lang NP, Karring T. editors. Proceedings of the 1 st European Workshop on Periodontology. Berlin: Quintessence; 1994. p. 365-9. |
|2.||Lindhe J, Meyle J. Peri-implant diseases: Consensus Report of the Sixth European Workshop on Periodontology. J Clin Periodontol 2008;35:282-5. |
|3.||Kreisler M, Gotz H, Duschner H. Effect of Nd:YAG, Ho:YAG, Er: YAG, CO2, and GaAIAs laser irradiation on surface properties of endosseous dental implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2002;17:202-11. |
|4.||Romanos GE, Everts H, Nentwig GH. Effects of diode and Nd: YAG laser irradiation on titanium discs: A scanning electron microscope examination. J Periodontol 2000;71:810-5. |
|5.||Esposito M, Grusovin MG, Tzanetea E, Piattelli A, Worthington HV. Interventions for replacing missing teeth: Treatment of perimplantitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD004970. |
|6.||Aoki A, Sasaki KM, Watanabe H, Ishikawa I. Lasers in nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Periodontol 2000 2004;36:59-97. |
|7.||Cobb CM. Lasers in periodontics: A review of the literature. J Periodontol 2006;77:545-64. |
|8.||Bach G, Neckel C, Mall C, Krekeler G. Conventional versus laser-assisted therapy of periimplantitis: A five-year comparative study. Implant Dent 2000;9:247-51. |
|9.||Jepsen S, Deschner J, Braun A, Schwarz F, Eberhard J. Calculus removal and the prevention of its formation. Periodontol 2000 55:167-88. |
|10.||Trombelli L, Scapoli C, Tatakis DN, Grassi L. Modulation of clinical expression of plaque-induced gingivitis: Effects of personality traits, social support and stress. J Clin Periodontol 2005;32:1143-50. |
|11.||Bengazi F, Wennstrom JL, Lekholm U. Recession of the soft tissue margin at oral implants. A 2-year longitudinal prospective study. Clin Oral Implants Res 1996;7:303-10. |
|12.||Cairo F, Pagliaro U, Nieri M. Soft tissue management at implant sites. J Clin Periodontol 2008;35:163-7. |
|13.||Adibrad M, Shahabuei M, Sahabi M. Significance of the width of keratinized mucosa on the health status of the supporting tissue around implants supporting overdentures. J Oral Implantol 2009;35:232-7. |
|14.||Schrott AR, Jimenez M, Hwang JW, Fiorellini J, Weber HP. Five-year evaluation of the influence of keratinized mucosa on peri-implant soft-tissue health and stability around implants supporting full-arch mandibular fixed prostheses. Clin Oral Implants Res 2009;20:1170-7. |
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7]