Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 358-364

Salivary enzymes as diagnostic markers for detection of gingival/periodontal disease and their correlation with the severity of the disease


1 Department of Dentistry, M.D.M Hospital, Dr. S.N Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
2 Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology, B.R.S Dental College, Barwala, Panchkula, Haryana, India
3 Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology, Swami Devi Dyal Hospital and Dental College, Barwala, Panchkula, Haryana, India

Correspondence Address:
Sarita Dabra
Department of Dentistry, M.D.M Hospital, Dr. S.N Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-124X.100911

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Context: Host responses to periodontal disease include the production of different enzymes released by stromal, epithelial or inflammatory cells. Important enzymes associated with cell injury and cell death are aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase, acidic phosphatase (ALP, ACP), and gama glutamyl transferase (GGT). Changes in enzymatic activity reflect metabolic changes in the gingiva and periodontium, in the inflammation. Aims: In this article we examined the activity of AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, and ACP in the saliva from patients with periodontal disease, before and after periodontal treatment (experimental group - 20 gingivitis patients and 20 periodontitis patients), and in the saliva from healthy subjects (control group - 20 samples). Settings and Design: Periodontal disease was determined based on the clinical parameters (gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL)). Patients with periodontal disease were under conventional periodontal treatment. Materials and Methods: The stimulated saliva of the patient was collected in a sterile test tube and analyzed using the Automatic Analyzer. Results: The obtained results showed statistically significant increased activity of AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, and ACP in the saliva from patients with periodontal disease, in relation to the control group. A significant reduction in the enzyme levels was seen after conventional periodontal therapy. Conclusions : Based on these results, it can be assumed that the salivary enzymes (AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, and ACP) can be considered as biochemical markers for evaluating the diagnosis and prognosis of the functional condition of periodontal tissues in disease and health, and in the evaluation of the therapy effects in periodontal disease.


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